Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

Coastal

Coastal ecosystems typically occur within 100–200 m of the shoreline.  Their biota and physical environments are strongly influenced by salt, wind, and exposure.  Some of the 13 naturally uncommon ecosystems in coastal environments have been severely degraded by human activities and feral animals, resulting in substrate disturbance, weed invasion and erosion.  Coastal development remains an ongoing threat to these ecosystems.

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