Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

Dugdale's and April Green Cicadas

Dugdale's Cicada, Kikihia dugdalei Fleming, 1984 and April Green Cicada, Kikihia ochrina (Walker, 1858)

Kikhia dugdalei and K. ochrina are two members of the green foliage cicadas, a group of species usually found on the foliage of broadleaf trees and shrubs in forests or at their margins and characterised by their overall green appearance (vivid green in live individuals), a usually reduced amount of dark dorsal markings, and the mesonotum with two posterior spots that are rather small and distant from (not fused or contiguous with) the outer obconical (conical with tip downward) marks.

<em>K. dugdalei</em>, male
K. dugdalei, female
K. dugdalei, male
Note: Tip of abdomen abnormally twisted to the right; not a diagnostic character.
K. dugdalei, female
K. ochrina, male
K. ochrina, female
K. ochrina, male K. ochrina, female
Museum specimens above, with faded overall colouration

Kikihia dugdalei and K. ochrina are closely similar in overall external morphology, but they can be distinguished from each other by two main characters: the presence (in K. dugdalei) or absence (in K. ochrina) of pinkish patches on the coxae of the forelegs; the usual presence, in males of K. dugdalei, of a pair of small black circular spots on the 2nd abdominal sternite. These two distinguishing characters can easily be seen in the images of live individuals accessible through the external hyperlink provided below for K. dugdalei. Both species lack a median yellow line on the pronotum. Background colour is usually more yellowish and markings are usually fainter in females than in males.

Kikihia dugdalei - Dugdale's Cicada

Identification notes

<em>Kikihia dugdalei</em> Closely similar to K. ochrina in overall colouration, but pronotum and mesonotum usually bearing more obvious dark markings (more so in males). Pronotum without median yellow line. Mesonotum with traces of faint obconical marks in the form of 2 black sickle-shaped lines and 2 small posterior spots as in K. ochrina. Coxae of forelegs with pinkish patches (without, in K. ochrina) . Abdomen with dorsal silvery stripe faint, abbreviated or interrupted. Males usually with a pair of small black circular spots on the 2nd abdominal sternite; tymbals with 3 long and 2 short ridges. Body length: 15–18 mm (males); 17–20 mm (females). Wingspread: 42–49 mm (males); 48–55 (females).

Range

New Zealand. North Island: Northland, Auckland, Waikato, Bay of Plenty, Taupo, Gisborne, Wellington.

Habitat

Forest margins and shrublands; almost confined to the shrubs Cyathodes juniperina and C. fasciculata (mingimingi), but also sometimes found on other shrubs although, unlike K. ochrina, not apparently attracted to introduced trees such as poplars and oaks, or to native Coprosma.

External hyperlinks

Cicada Central website's Electronic Field Guide to the cicadas of New Zealand (Images of live individuals and MP3 song file). The 2010 Catalogue of New Zealand Auchenorrhyncha (more details on nomenclature, biology, distribution, and dispersal) and the virtual collection of primary types of Hemiptera (photos of primary types).

Kikihia ochrina - April Green Cicada

Identification notes

<em>Kikihia ochrina</em>. Image - M Esson Rather uniform bright green overall colour, almost without dark markings except for a few markings on head (mostly around ocelli), pronotum and mesonotum, the latter usually with traces of faint obconical marks in the form of 2 black sickle-shaped lines and 2 small posterior spots. Pronotum without median yellow line. Coxae of forelegs uniformly coloured, without pinkish patches as in K. dugdalei. Abdomen with dorsal silvery stripe faint, abbreviated or interrupted. Males always lacking the pair of small black circular spots on the 2nd abdominal sternite, found in most males of K. dugdalei; tymbals as in K. dugdalei, with 3 long and 2 short ridges. Body length: 15–20 mm (males); 17–23 mm (females). Wingspread: 42–54 mm (males); 49–59 (females).

Range

New Zealand. North island: Northland, Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Taranaki, Taupo, Wellington. South Island: Mid Canterbury (probably introduced; Hill et al., 2005). Offshore Islands: Three Kings Islands.

Habitat

Forest margins and shrublands; on a wide variety of shrubs and trees (especially broadleaves), e.g., Coprosma, Hebe, Melicytus, Myoporum, Pseudopanax, as well as on some introduced trees (e.g., oaks, poplars ).

External hyperlinks

Cicada Central website's Electronic Field Guide to the cicadas of New Zealand (Images of live individuals and MP3 song file). The 2010 Catalogue of New Zealand Auchenorrhyncha (more details on nomenclature, biology, distribution, and dispersal) and the virtual collection of primary types of Hemiptera (photos of primary types).