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Peter Bellingham

Senior Researcher
Ecosystems & Conservation
Peter Bellingham
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Research interests

Areas of interest

Temperate and tropical forest ecology

Special interests: consequences of disturbance and biological invasions to plant community dynamics and ecosystem function.


Walker, L.R. & Bellingham, P.  2011.  Island Environments in a Changing World.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. ISBN: 9780521732475

Mulder, C.P.H., Anderson, W.B., Towns, D.R. & Bellingham P.J. (eds.) 2011 Seabird islands:  ecology, invasions, and restoration.  Oxford University Press, New York, U.S.A.  ISBN: 9780199735693

Recent publications

Tanner, E.V.J., Bellingham, P.J., Healey, J.R. & Feeley, K.J. 2022. Hurricane disturbance accelerated the thermophilization of a Jamaican montane forest. Ecography, in press, doi: 10.1111/ecog.06100.

Mologni, F., Bellingham, P.J., Cameron, E.K., Dinh, K., Wright, A.E. & Burns, K.C. 2022. Functional traits explain non-native plant species richness and occupancy on northern New Zealand islands. Biological Invasions, in press, doi: 10.1007/s10530-022-02762-1.

McGlone, M.S., Bellingham, P.J. & Richardson, S.J. 2022. Science, policy, and sustainable indigenous forestry in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 52, 8, doi: 10.33494/nzjfs522022x182x.

Godsoe, W., Bellingham, P.J. & Moltchanova, E. 2022. Disentangling niche theory and beta diversity change. American Naturalist, 199, 510-522, doi: 10.1086/718592.

Jo, I., Bellingham, P.J., McCarthy, J.K., Easdale, T., Padamsee, M., Wiser, S.K. & Richardson, S.J. 2022. Ecological importance of the Myrtaceae in New Zealand's natural forests. Journal of Vegetation Science, 33, e13106, doi: 10.1111/jvs.13106.

Walker, S., Bellingham, P.J., Kaine, G., Richardson, S., Greenhalgh, S., Simcock, R., Brown, M.A., Stephens, T. & Lee, W.G. 2021. What effects must be avoided, remediated or mitigated to maintain indigenous biodiversity? New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 45, 3445, doi: 10.20417/nzjecol.45.26.

Mologni, F., Bellingham, P.J.Tjørve, E., Cameron, E.K., Wright, A.E. & Burns, K.C. 2021. Similar yet distinct distributional patterns characterize native and exotic plant species richness across northern New Zealand islands. Journal of Biogeography, 48, 1731-1745, doi: 10.1111/jbi.14110. 

Lambers, H., Wright, I.J., Pereira, C.G., Bellingham, P.J., Bentley, L.P., Boonman, A., Cernusak, L.A., Foulds, W., Gleason, S.M., Gray, E.F., Hayes, P.E., Kooyman, R.M., Malhi, Y., Richardson, S.J., Shane, M.W., Staudinger, C., Stock, W.D., Swarts, N.D., Turner, B.L., Turner, J., Veneklaas, E.J., Wasaki, J., Westoby, M. & Xu, Y. 2020. Leaf manganese concentrations as a tool to assess belowground plant functioning in phosphorus-impoverished environments. Plant and Soil, 461, 43-61, doi: 10.1007/s11 104-020-04690-2.

Brandt, A.J., Bellingham, P.J., Duncan, R.P., Etherington, T.R., Fridley, J.D., Howell, C.J., Hulme, P.E., Jo, I., McGlone, M.S., Richardson, S.J., Sullivan, J.J., Williams, P.A. & Pelzer, D.A. 2021. Naturalised plants transform the composition and function of the New Zealand flora. Biological Invasions, 23, 351-366, doi: 10.1007/s10530-020-02393-4

McCarthy, J.K., Wiser, S.K., Bellingham, P.J., Beresford, R.M., Campbell, R.E., Turner, R. & Richardson, S.J. 2021. Using spatial models to identify refugia and guide restoration in response to an invasive plant pathogen. Journal of Applied Ecology, 58, 192-201, doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13756.

Wright, E.F., Bellingham, P.J., Richardson, S.J., McKay, M., MacLeod, C.J. & McGlone, M.S. 2020. How to get a national biodiversity monitoring of the ground: lessons from New Zealand. Parks26 (2)67-78, doi: 10.2305/IUCN.CH.2020.PARKS-26-2EFW.en

Bellingham, P.J., Richardson, S.J., Gormley, A.M., Allen, R.B., Cook, A., Crisp, P.N., Forsyth, D.M., McGlone, M.S., McKay, M., MacLeod, C.J., van Dam-Bates, P. & Wright, E.F. 2020. Implementing integrated measurements of Essential Biodiversity Variables at a national scale. Ecological Solutions and Evidence1, e12025, doi: 10.1002/2688-8319.12025.

Burge, O.R., Bellingham, P.J., Arnst, E.A., Bonner, K.I., Burrows, L.E., Richardson, S.J., Wiser, S.K., Wood, J.R. & Wilmshurst, J.M. 2020. Integrating palaeoecological and permanent plot data to determine subalpine post-fire succession, recovery and convergence over 128 years. Journal of Vegetation Science, 31, 755-767, doi: 10.1111/jvs.12887.

McGlone, M.S., McNutt, K., Richardson, S.J., Bellingham, P.J., & Wright, E.F. 2020. Biodiversity monitoring, ecological integrity, and the design of the New Zealand Biodiversity Assessment Framework. New Zealand Journal of Ecology44, 3411, doi: 10.20417/nzjecol.44.17.

Laughlin, D.C., Delzon, S., Clearwater, M.J., Bellingham, P.J., McGlone, M.S. & Richardson, S.J. 2020. Climatic limits of temperate rainforest tree species are explained by xylem embolism resistance among angiosperms but not among conifers. New Phytologist, 226,727-740, doi: 10.1111/nph.16448.

Allen, R.B., MacKenzie, D.I., Bellingham, P.J., Wiser, S.K., Arnst, E.A., Coomes, D.A. & Hurst, J.M. 2020. Tree survival and growth responses in the aftermath of a strong earthquake. Journal of Ecology, 108, 107-122, doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.13238.

Peltzer, D.A., Bellingham, P.J., Dickie, I.A., Houliston, G., Hulme, P.E., Lyver, P.O'B., McGlone, M., Richardson, S.J. & Wood, J. 2019. Scale and complexity implications of making New Zealand predator-free by 2050. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 49, 412-439, doi: 10.1080/03036758.2019.1653940.

McLaren, K., Luke, D., Tanner, E.V.J., Bellingham, P.J. & Healey, J.R. 2019. Reconstructing the effects of hurricanes over 155 years on the structure and diversity of trees in two tropical montane rainforests in Jamaica. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 276-277, 107621, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2019.107621.

Castro-Díez, P., Vaz, A.S., Silva, J.S., van Loo, M., Alonso, A., Aponte, C., Bayon, A., Bellingham, P.J., Chiuffo, M.C., DiManno, N., Julian, K., et al. 2019. Global effects of non-native tree species on multiple ecosystem services. Biological Reviews94, 1477-1501, doi: 10.1111/brv.12511.

Slik, J.W.F., Franklin, J., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Field, R., Aguilar, S., Aguiree, N., Ahumada, J., Aiba, S.-I., Alves, L.F., Anitha, K., Avella, A., Ardila, F.M., Aymard C, G.A., Báez, S., Balvanera, P., Bastian, M.L., Bastin, J.-F., Bellingham, al. 2018. A phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A.115, 1837-1842, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1714977115.

Bellingham, P.J., Tanner, E.V.J., Martin, P.H., Healey, J.R. & Burge, O.R. 2018. Endemic trees in a tropical biodiversity hotspot imperilled by an invasive tree. Biological Conservation, 217, 47-53, doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2017.10.028.

Laughlin, D.C., Lusk, C.H., Bellingham, P.J., Burslem, D.F.R.P., Simpson, A.H. & Kramer-Walter, K.R.  2017. Intraspecific trait variation can weaken interspecific trait correlations when assessing the whole-plant economic spectrum. Ecology and Evolution, 7, 8936-8949, doi: 10.1002/ece3.3447.

Ramsey, D.S.L., Forsyth, D.M., Veltman, C.J., Richardson, S.J., Allen, R.B., Allen, W.J., Barker, R.J., Bellingham, P.J., Jacobson, C.L., Nicol, S.J., Robertson, A.W. & Todd, C.R. 2017.  A management experiment reveals the difficulty of altering seedling growth and palatable plant biomass by culling invasive deer. Wildlife Research44, 623-636, doi: 10.1071/WR16206.

Shackelford, N., Starzomski, B.M., Banning, N.C., Battaglia, L., Becker, A., Bellingham, P.J., Bestelmeyer, B., Catford, J.A., Dwyer, J.M., Dynesius, M., Gilmour, J., Hallett, L.M., Hobbs, R.J., Price, J., Sasaki, T., Tanner, E.V.J. & Standish, R.J. 2017. Isolation predicts compositional change after discrete disturbances in a global meta-study. Ecography, 40, 1256-1266, doi: 10.1111/ecog.02383.

Grubb, P.J., Piper, F.I. & Bellingham, P.J. 2017.  Problems with bioclimatic definitions of vegetation types. New Zealand Journal of Botany55, 373-377, doi: 10.1080/0028825X.2017.1314305.

Holdaway, R.J., Wood, J.R., Dickie, I.A., Orwin, K.H., Bellingham, P.J., Richardson, S.J., Lyver, P.O'B., Timoti, P. & Buckley, T.R. 2017. Using DNA metabarcoding to assess New Zealand's terrestrial biodiversity. New Zealand Journal of Ecology41, 251-262, doi: 10.20417/nzjecol.41.28.

Bokhorst, S., Kardol, P., Bellingham, P.J., Kooyman, R.M., Richardson, S.J., Schmidt, S. & Wardle, D.A. 2017. Responses of communities of soil organisms to soil aging at two contrasting long-term chronosequences. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 106, 69-79, doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2016.12.014.

Bellingham, P.J., Kardol, P., Bonner, K.I., Buxton, R.P., Morse, C.W. & Wardle, D.A. 2016. Browsing by an invasive herbivore promotes development of plant and soil communities during primary succession. Journal of Ecology104, 1505-1517, doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12624.

Martin, P.H. & Bellingham, P.J. 2016. Towards integrated ecological research in tropical montane cloud forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology32, 345-354, doi: 10.1017/S0266467416000432.

Kramer-Walter, K.R., Bellingham, P.J., Millar, T.R., Smissen, R.D., Richardson, S.J. & Laughlin, D.C. 2016. Root traits are multidimensional: specific root length is independent from root tissue density and the plant economic spectrum. Journal of Ecology104, 1299-1310, doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12562.

Traveset, A., Fernández-Palacios, J.M., Kueffer, C., Bellingham, P.J., Morden, C. & Drake, D.R. 2016. Advances in island plant biology since Sherwin Carlquist's "Island Biology". AoB Plants8, plv148, doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plv148.

McGeoch, M.A., Genovesi, P., Bellingham, P.J., Costello, M.J., McGrannachan, C. & Sheppard, A. 2016. Prioritizing species, pathways and sites to achieve conservation targets for biological invasion. Biological Invasions18, 299-314, doi: 10.1007/s10530-015-1013-1.

Bellingham, P.J., Richardson, S.J., Mason, N.W.H., Veltman, C.J., Allen, R.B., Allen, W.J., Barker, R.J., Forsyth, D.M., Nicol, S.J. & Ramsey, D.S.L. 2016. Introduced deer at low densities do not inhibit the regeneration of a dominant tree. Forest Ecology and Management364, 70-76, doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2015.12.013.

Orwin, K.H., Wardle, D.A., Towns, D.R., St. John, M.G., Bellingham, P.J., Jones, C., Fitzgerald, B.M., Parrish, R.G. & Lyver, P.O'B. 2016. Burrowing seabird effects on invertebrate communities in soil and litter are dominated by ecosystem engineering rather than nutrient addition. Oecologia180, 217-230, doi: 10.1007/s00442-015-3437-9.


PhD Plant Sciences

BForSc Forest Ecology

BSc Botany


Ramsey DSL, Forsyth DM, Veltman CJ, Nicol SJ, Todd CR, Allen RB, Allen WJ, Bellingham PJ, Richardson SJ, Jacobson CL, Barker RJ 2012. An approximate Bayesian algorithm for training fuzzy cognitive map models of forest responses to deer control in a New Zealand adaptive management experiment. Ecological modelling 240(0): 93-104.

Towns DR, Bellingham PJ, Mulder CPH, Lyver PO 2012. A research strategy for biodiversity conservation on New Zealand’s offshore islands. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 36(1): 1-20.

Cernusak LA, Adie H, Bellingham PJ, Biffin E, Brodribb TJ, Coomes DA, Dalling JW, Dickie IA, Enright NJ, Kitayama K, Ladd PG, Lambers H, Lawes MJ, Lusk CH, Morley RJ, Turner BL 2011. Podocarpaceae in tropical forests: a synthesis. In: Turner BL, Cernusak LA ed. Ecology of the podocarpaceae in tropical forests. Smithsonian Contributrions to Botany. 95. Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution.

Coomes DA, Bellingham PJ 2011. Temperate and tropical podocarps: how ecologically alike are they? . In: Turner BL, Cernusak LA ed. Ecology of the Podocarpaceae in tropical forests. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany. 95. Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 119-145.

Dalling JW, Barkan P, Bellingham PJ, Healy JR, Tanner EVJ 2011. Ecology and distribution of Neotropical Podocarpaceae. In: Turner BL, Cernusak LA ed. Ecology of the Podocarpaceae in tropical forests. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany. 95. Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 43-56.

Hilton RG, Meunier P, Hovius N, Bellingham PJ, Galy A 2011. Landslide impact on organic carbon cycling in a temperate montane forest. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 36(12): 1670–1679.


  • Editorial Board Member, New Zealand Journal of Ecology
  • Associate Editor, Journal of Ecology