Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

ICHNEUMONIDAE: : Apoclima Förster 1869


Males have a very distinct spine on 3rd flagella (5th antennal segment), there is no other genus like this in New Zealand.

Characteristics of Apoclima include: 1. Body size <10mm; 2. Position of spiracle on T1 at, close to, or before centre; 3. Shape of aerolet in forewing pentagonal open; 4. Colour of face black; 5. Metasoma somewhat compressed dorsal-ventrally; 6. Size of ocelli small; 7. Length of antennae shorter than body, males have a very distinct spine on 3rd flagella (5th antennal segment); 8. Length of ovipositor distinct but not longer than body; 9. Wings present; 10. Colour of wings hyaline (clear); 11. Sternaulus absent; 12. Shape of face in lateral view flat or only weakly bulging; 13. Sternite on T1 (viewed laterally) not extending past spiracle; 14. Shape of T1 (viewed laterally) evenly curved to gradually humped; 15. Number of teeth in mandibles 2; 16. Metasoma same colour throughout or with indistinct yellow/brown stripes; 17. Length of T1 longer than T2; 18. Sculpture on mesoscutum finely pitted, many hairs; 19. Width of T1 (viewed dorsally) uniform width (slightly widening posteriorly); 20. Glymma on T1 present, (deep pit); 21. Sculpture on metasoma smooth with a semi-glossy or satin appearance at least on T2; 22. Propodeum very short (not reaching beyond coxal insertion).

Similarity to Other Taxa

Apoclima are quite different from other Orthocentrinae in New Zealand. They can be sperated from Helictes and Megastylus by: having a glymma, ovipositor length is distinct, not having a elongate T1. Males have a very distinct spine on 3rd flagella (5th antennal segment), there is no other genus like this in New Zealand.

Distribution in NZ

North Island: ND, AK, BP, HB, WN. South Island: NN, BR, MC, CO, OL, SI, SL.

Species in NZ

At least one undescribed endemic species.

Biology & hosts

Apoclima is currently considered a Northern Hemisphere Holarctic genus, but Dasch (1992, p26) also reports undescribed species from Mexico, Ecuador, and the Philippines.

No information is available on the species in New Zealand. However, collection records indicate they are predominately caught in forested areas.

Sources of information

Dasch CE. 1992. The Ichneumon-flies of America north of Mexico: Part 12. Subfamilies Microleptinae, Helictinae, Cylloceriinae and Oxytorinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute. No. 52. 470 pp.
Gauld ID 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. London, British Museum (Natural History). 413 p.


Ward DF & Schnitzler FR. 2013. Ichneumonidae of New Zealand. Genus Apoclima
Accessed: 13 July 2020


v1.0. Ward DF & Schnitzler FR. 2013