In this section
Inland & alpine
- Basic cliffs, scarps and tors
- Boulderfields of acidic rocks (non-volcanic)
- Boulderfields of calcareous rocks
- Braided riverbeds
- Calcareous cliffs, scarps and tors
- Calcareous screes
- Cliffs, scarps and tors of acidic rocks
- Cliffs, scarps and tors of quartzose rocks
- Cloud forests
- Frost hollows
- Granitic gravel fields
- Granitic sand plains
- Inland outwash gravels
- Inland saline (salt pans)
- Inland sand dunes
- Limestone erosion pavements
- Old tephra (>500 years) plains (= frost flats)
- Recent lava flows
- Sandstone erosion pavements
- Screes of acidic rocks
- Strongly leached terraces and plains
- Ultrabasic boulderfields
- Ultrabasic cliffs, scarps and tors
- Ultrabasic hills
- Ultrabasic screes
- Volcanic boulderfields
- Volcanic debris flows or lahars
- Volcanic dunes
- Young tephra plains and hillslopes
Young tephra environments are formed of recent (<500 years) coarse (sand-gravel) pyroclastic deposits of acidic to basic volcanic rocks. At lower altitudes species such as toetoe (Austroderia fulvida), bracken (Pteridium esculentum), and tree tutu (Coriaria arborea) colonise fine material, whereas more exposed surfaces may be colonised only by mosses and scabweeds (Raoulia spp.) for many years.
Notable flora and fauna
Threatened and rare plants includeinclude nationally endangered Melicytus aff. alpinus (a) (CHR 541565; Rangipo), declining (Pimelea microphylla), Thelymitra aff. longifolia (CHR 537579; Whakapapa). The intergeneric hybrid Olearia arborescens × Celmisia gracilenta is found only on Mt Tarawera.
Vulnerable (Holdaway et al. 2012)
Pines (Pinus spp.) have been a major problem on parts of Mt Tarawera and central the Volcanic Plateau. Ling heather (Calluna vulgaris) is also a continuing potential threat on the central Volcanic Plateau. Lagomorphs and possums may be a problem. Off-road drivers and motorcyclists can be a threat in some areas.
Where do they occur?
Mt Taranaki, Mt Tarawera, Tongariro National Park, White Island (Whakaari).
Clarkson BD 1990. A review of vegetation development following recent (less-than 450 Years) volcanic disturbance in North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 14: 59-71.
Clarkson BD, Clarkson BR 1994. Vegetation decline following recent eruptions on White Island (Whakaari), Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 32: 21-36.
Clarkson BR, Clarkson BD 1983. Mt Tarawera: 2. Rates of change in the vegetation and flora of the high domes. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 6: 107-119.
Timmins SM 1983. Mt Tarawera: 1. Vegetation types and successional trends. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 6: 99-105.
Wardle P 1991. Vegetation of New Zealand. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 524-525.