Skip to content


Andersen AN 2000.The ants of Northern Australia. Collingwood, Melbourne, CSIRO.

Andersen AN 2002. Common names for Australian ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Australian Journal of Entomology 41: 285–293.


Berry JA, Green OR, Shattuck SO 1997. Species of Pheidole Westwood (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) established in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 24: 25–33.

Blum MS 1966. The source and specificity of trail pheromones in Termitopone, Monomorium and Huberia, and their relation to those of some other ants. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society, London (A) 41: 155–160.

Bolton B 1995. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Harvard University Press. 504 p.

Bolton B 1979. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera Formicidae).  The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Oriental and indo-Australian regions and in Australia. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 36: 67–151.

Bolton B 1987. A review of the Solenopsis genus–group and revision of Afrotropical Monomorium Mayr. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 54: 263–452.

Bolton B 2007. Taxonomy of the Dolichoderine ant genus Technomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) based on the worker caste. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 35(1): 1–150.

Bosik JJ 1997. Common names of insects and related organisms. Lanham, MD, Entomological Society of America.

Brown WL 1948. A new Discothyrea from New Caledonia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche 55: 38–40.

Brown WL 1953. A revision of the dacetine ant genus Orectognathus. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 13: 84–104.

Brown WL 1955. The first social parasite in the ant tribe Dacetini. Insectes Sociaux 11: 181–186.

Brown WL 1958a. A review of the ants of New Zealand. Acta Hymenopterologica 1: 1–50.

Brown WL 1958b. Contributions to a reclassification of the Formicidae. II. Tribe Ectatommini (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 118: 173–362.

Brown WL 1960. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. III. Tribe Amblyoponini (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 122: 145–230.


Carpintero S, Reyes-Lopez J, Arias de Reyna L 2003. Impact of human dwellings on the distribution of the exotic Argentine ant: a case study in the Donana National Park, Spain. Biological Conservation 115: 279–289.

Charles JG 1993. A survey of mealybugs and their natural enemies in horticultural crops in North Island, New Zealand, with implications for biological control.  Biocontrol Science and Technology 3: 405–418.

Cole FR, Medeiros AC, Loope LL, Zuehlke WW 1992. Effects of the Argentine ant on arthropod fauna of Hawaiian high-elevation shrubland. Ecology 73: 1313–1322.

Collingwood CA 1985. Hymenoptera: Fam. Formicidae of Saudi Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 7: 230–302.


Davis P, Van Schagen J 1993. Effective control of pest ants. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia 34: 92–95.

Delabie JHC, Blard F 2002. The tramp ant Hypoponera punctatissima (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae): New records from the Southern Hemisphere. Neotropical Entomology 31(1): 149–151.

Deyrup M, Davis L, Cover S 2000. Exotic ants in Florida. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 126: 293–326.  

Don AW 1994. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Three Kings Islands, New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 17: 22–29.

Don AW, Jones TH 1993. The stereochemistry of 3-butyl-5-(5-hexenyl)-pyrrolizidine from populations of Monomorium antarcticum (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and its possible use as a unique taxonomic character. New Zealand Entomologist 16: 45–48.

Don AW, Jones TH, Flournoy RC, Zottig VE 2001. Venom chemistry of Monomorium antipodum Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from New Zealand and its relevance to the taxonomy of the species. New Zealand Entomologist 24: 49–52.

Donisthorpe H 1940. Descriptions of new species of ants (Hym: Formicidae) from various localities. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (11) 5: 39–48.


Edwards JP 1986. The biology, economic importance, and control of the pharaoh's ant Monomorium pharaonis (L.). In: Vinson SB ed. Economic impact and control of social insects. New York, Praeger. Pp. 257–271.

Eichler W 1978. The distribution of Pharaoh's ant. Memorabilia Zoologica 29: 15–22. 

Eichler W 1993. The spread and dissemination of Monomorium pharaonis in Central Europe. Applied Parasitology 34: 121–124.


Faulds W 1970. A second species of Iridomyrmex Mayr established in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 4: 18–19.

Ferro DN, Committee chairman [et al.] 1977. Standard names for common insects of New Zealand. Auckland, Entomological Society of New Zealand. 42 p.

Folgarait PJ 1998. Ant biodiversity and its relationship to ecosystem functioning: a review. Biodiversity and Conservation 7: 1221–1244.

Fowler HG, Alves LE, Bueno OC 1993. Reproductive strategies of the exotic Pharaoh’s ant Monomorium pharaonis (L.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Brazil. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 23: 235–238.


Gray KJ, Porter C, Hawkey PM, Compton SG, Edwards JP 1995. Roger's ant: a new pest in hospitals. British Medical Journal of Clinical Research 311: 129.

Green OR 1990. Entomologist sets new record at Mt Smart, or Iridomyrmex humilis established in New Zealand. Weta 13: 14–16.

Green OR 1992. New Zealand ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Distribution and effects.Symposium: Social and Harmful Insects. Proceedings of the 41st annual conference of the Entomological Society of New Zealand.

Gunawardana D 2005. Monomorium fieldi Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the current name to use for ants previously known as Monormorium antipodum Forel and Monomorium orientale Mayr in New Zealand. The Weta 30: 14–15.


Harris RJ 2001. Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and other adventive ants in New Zealand. DOC Science Internal Series 7. Wellington, New Zealand, Department of Conservation.

Harris RJ, Berry JA 2001. Confirmation of the establishment of three adventive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in New Zealand: Cardiocondyla minutior Forel, Ponera leae Forel, Mayriella abstinens Forel. New Zealand Entomologist 24: 53–56.

Harris R, Ward D, Sutherland MA 2002. A survey of the current distribution of Argentine ants, Linepithema humile, in native habitats in New Zealand, and the assessment of future risk of establishment. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0102/105 to Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Biosecurity Authority (unpublished).

Haskins CP, Haskins EF 1951. Note on the method of colony foundation of the ponerine ant Amblyopone australis Erichson. American Midland Naturalist 45: 432–445.

Heterick BE 2001. Revision of the Australian ants of the genus Monomorium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 15: 353–459.

Hōlldobler B, Wilson EO 1990. The ants. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. xii + 732 pp.

Human KG, Gordon DM 1997. Effects of Argentine ants on invertebrate biodiversity in northern California. Conservation Biology 11: 1242–1248. 


Jones TH, Stahly SM, Don AW, Blum MS 1988. Chemotaxonomic implications of the venom chemistry of some Monomorium antarcticum populations. Journal of Chemical Ecology 14: 2197–2212.

Jones TH, Laddago A, Don AW, Blum MS 1990. A novel (5E, 9Z)–dialkylindolizidine from the ant Monomorium smithii. Journal of Natural Products 53: 375–381.


eall JB 1979. Darwin’s ant: Biology, significance and control. AgLink FPP 292. Wellington, Media Services, MAF. Pp. 1–2.

Keall JB, Somerfield KG 1980. The Australian ant Iridomyrmex darwinianus established in New Zealand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). New Zealand Entomologist 7: 123–127.

Keall JB 1981. A note on the occurrence of Myrmecia brevinoda (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 18: 203–204.

Kohn M, Vlcek M 1982. The occurrence of Monomorium pharaonis (L.) outside human dwellings. Folia Parasitologica 29: 350.

Kohn M, Vlcek M 1986. Outdoor persistence throughout the year of Monomorium pharaonis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomologia Generalis 11: 213–215.


Lee C, Lee L, Na JP, Loke P, Lim K, Teo EH 2003. Evaluation of methoprene granular baits against foraging Pharaoh ants, Monomorium pharaonis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 41: 717–723.

Lester PJ, Baring CW, Longson CG, Hartley S 2003. Argentine and other ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in New Zealand horticultural ecosystems: distribution, hemipteran hosts, and review. New Zealand Entomologist 26: 79–89.


McGlynn TP 1999. The worldwide transfer of ants: geographical distribution and ecological invasions. Journal of Biogeography 26: 535–548.

Moore WE 1940. Observations on Huberia striata Smith and Discothyrea antarctica Emery. Records of the Canterbury Museum 4: 305–309.


Nikitin MI 1979. Geographical distribution of three species of small ants common in New South Wales. Australian Entomological Magazine 5(6): 101–102.


Passera L 1994. Characteristics of tramp species. In: Williams DFed. Exotic ants: Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Boulder, CO, Westview Press. Pp. 23–43.


Roger J 1859. Beitrāge zur Kenntniss der Ameisenfauna der Mittelmeerlānder. I. Berl. Entomol. Z. 3: 225–259.


Samways MJ, Nel M, Prins AJ 1982. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) foraging in citrus trees and attending honeydew-producing homoptera. Phytophylactica 14: 155–157.

Scott RR, Emberson RM 1999. Handbook of New Zealand insect names: Common and scientific names for insects and allied organisms. Auckland, Entomological Society of New Zealand. 100 p.

Seifert B 2003. The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) – a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 104 B: 203–338.

Shattuck SO 1999. Australian ants: Their biology and identification. Collingwood, Melbourne, CSIRO.

Smith MR 1965, House-infesting ants of the eastern United States. Technical Bulletin, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture: 1326.

Smith WW 1896. On the habits of New Zealand ants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 28: 468–479.

Solley GO, Vanderwoude C, Knight GK 2002. Anaphylaxis due to red imported fire ant sting. Medical Journal of Australia 176: 521–523.


Taylor RW 1959. The Australian ant Iridomyrmex darwinianus (Forel) recorded in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 2: 18–19.

Taylor RW 1961. Notes and new records of exotic ants introduced into New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 2: 28–37.

Taylor RW 1962. The ants of the Three Kings Islands. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 251–254.

Taylor RW 1967. A monographic revision of the ant genus Ponera Latrielle (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 13: 1–112.

Taylor RW 1968. The Australian workerless inquiline, Strumigenys xenos Brown (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) recorded from New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 4: 47–49.

Taylor RW 1978. Melanesian ants of the genus Amblyopone (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 26: 823–39.

Timmins CJ, Stradling DJ 1993. Horse dung: a new or old habitat for Hypoponera punctatissima (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The Entomologist 122: 217–218.

Trager JC 1984. A revision of the genus Paratrechina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the continental United States. Sociobiology 9: 51–162.


Valentine EW, Walker AK 1991. Annotated Catalogue of New Zealand Hymenoptera. DSIR Plant Protection Report 4. Auckland, DSIR.

Vail KM, Williams DF 1994. Foraging of the Pharoah ant, Monomorium pharaonis: an exotic in the urban environment. In: Williams DF ed. Exotic ants. Biology, impact and control of introduced species. Boulder, CO, Westview Press. Pp. 228–239.


Ward DF 2005. Changes to the classification ofants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The Weta 30: 16–18.

Ward PS 1980. A systematic revision of the Rhytidoponera impressa group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Australia and New Guinea. Australian Journal of Zoology 28: 475–498.

Ward PS 1987. Distribution of the introduced Argentine ant (Iridomyrmex humilis) in natural habitats of the lower Sacramento valley and its effects on the indigenous ant fauna. Hilgardia 55: 1–16.

Way MJ, Cammell ME, Paiva MR 1992. Studies on egg predation by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) especially on the eucalyptus borer Phoracantha semipunctata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Portugal. Bulletin of Entomological Research 82: 425–432.

Wetterer JK 1998. Nonindigenous ants associated with geothermal and human disturbance in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Pacific Science 52: 40–50.

Wilson EO 2003. Pheidole in the new world. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. 794p.

Wilson EO, Taylor RW 1967. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 14: 1–109.

www1 http://ant.edb.miyakyo– [Japanese ant image database]

www2  [Featured creatures]

www3  [Key to identifying common household ants – University of California]

www4 [Australian ants online]

www5 [Hymenoptera name server]

www6 [Invasive Species Specialist Group – global species database]

www7 [University of Florida – pest ants]

www8  [The ants of Costa Rica]