Adélie penguins live further south than any other penguin species and have to cope with extremely cold conditions.
- Adélies have short stocky bodies and small extremities. This reduces the body's surface area and the amount of heat that can be lost.
- Adélie feathers are short, densely packed and overlapping, like tiles on a roof. Along with oil from a preen gland near the tail, these provide a totally waterproof layer.
- Underneath the feathers there is also a layer of warm down close to the skin.
- A thick layer of fat under the skin provides additional insulation from the cold − an adaptation common among warm-blooded, Antarctic vertebrates.