The New Zealand hydrobiosid caddis larvae have pincers on their forelegs. Neurochorema larvae tend to have a relatively small head with dark pigmentation running length-wise along the top of the head, sometimes with a pale midline. The prosternal plate (shield-like plate between the forelegs) is slightly wider than long. The common N. confusum has pale spots on the sides of each abdominal segment.
Neurochorema larvae can be common in bush-covered and farmland stony streams.
They are predators, feeding on other stream invertebrates.
Neurochorema are found in streams of moderate to good water quality. They have tolerance values of 6 for both hard bottom and soft bottom sites.