Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

Guide to New Zealand's freshwater invertebrates

Smooth cased caddis ( Conoesucidae : Confluens )

Diagnostic features

Confluens caddis larvae construct a smooth mobile case with no covering of sand grains. The front edge of the pronotum (first segment behind the head) is fringed by long black hairs.

Typical habitats

Confluens larvae are often found amongst aquatic mosses in stony, bush-covered streams.


Their frequent occurrence amongst aquatic mosses and liverworts may be because they feed on these plants or on the organic matter trapped amongst them.

Indicator value

An abundance of Confluens larvae indicates good habitat and water quality conditions, especially if mayfly or stonefly groups are also abundant. They have tolerance values of 5 (hard bottom sites) and 7.2 (soft bottom sites).