Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

FNZ 63 - Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue - Māori summary

Larivière, M-C; Fletcher, MJ; Larochelle, A 2010. Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue. Fauna of New Zealand 63, 232 pages.
( ISSN 0111-5383 (print), ISSN 1179-7193 (online) ; no. 63. ISBN 978-0-478-34720-3 (print) , ISBN 978-0-478-34721-0 (online) ). Published 16 Jun 2010
ZooBank: http://zoobank.org/References/ED0686ED-A8A6-42C2-AEFA-CDDBE9BF001D

Māori summary — He Whakarāpopototanga

Ngā kihikihi, ngā peke-rau, ngā peke-tipu, me ō rātou uri tata (arā, a ngāi Auchenorrhyncha)

E whakaaetia nuitia ana he pūtoi-iti a ngāi Auchenorrhyncha nō ngāi Hemiptera. Kei tēnei karangatanga ngā ngārara peke-tipu, ngā kihikihi, ngā peke-poraka, ngā pītara-tuha, ngā peke-rākau, me ngā peke-rau. He matahuhua tonu te rōpū nei, ā, ko rātou tētahi wāhanga nui o ngā hanga ora kai tipu o ngā pūnaha hauropi noho papa. He maha ā rātou urutaunga taha whanonga i ngā whenua me ngā moutere katoa (hāunga anō Te Kōpakatanga ki te Tonga), ā, e whakapaetia ana kei te āhua 42 000 ngā momo i ngā tini kokonga o te ao, kua oti te whakaahua ā-kupu. Nō ngā whānau e 30–40 ēnei momo. Tērā pea kei ngā mano ngā momo o ētahi o ngā taupori e kaha ake ana te mōhiotia, pērā i ērā o Amerika ki te Raki, o Ūropi, o Ahitereiria. Ina whakatairitea ngā mea o konei ki ērā, he huinga iti tonu, inā rā, 12 ngā whānau, e, 68 ngā puninga, 196 ngā momo. Engari ahakoa iti, he pounamu. Inā rā, ko tētahi 82% o ngā momo o konei e mōhiotia ana, kāore i whenua kē. Nā reira me kī pēnei ake, he wāhi whakahirahira a Aotearoa mō te matahuhua-koiora o tēnei karangatanga pepeke. Kāore e kore ka kitea he puninga anō, he momo anō ā tōna wā, ā, ina oti te whakaahua ā-kupu, tērā ka piki te maha o ngā momo ki te 300–350.

E toru ngā āhuatanga matua e noho wehe ai ngā Auchenorrhyncha i ērā atu pūtoi-iti o ngāi Hemiptera: ko ngā wāhanga ngote o te waha – arā, he ngutu e toro ana atu i te murikōkai — ko te tikanga hoki o te ingoa Auchenorrhyncha, ko te “ngutu-kakī”; ko te poto o ngā pūhihi — me te tarakina te rite; kotahi anō te kakano o ngā parihau o mua (he kiriuhi katoa, he kirikau katoa rānei) e noho ‘tuanui’ mai ana ki te puku.

I tēnei putanga, ka whakautua ngā momo pātai e whā e uia nuitia ana mō ngā aitanga pepeke, koia ēnei: he aha, kei hea, āhea, pēhea? He aha ngā Auchenorrhyncha kei Aotearoa e noho ana, he aha ō rātou tūranga (e.g., he momo māori, he rāwaho, he momo takakino, he whakawhiti tahumaero)? He aha ngā rauemi e wātea ana hei tautohu, hei rangahau i ngā pepeke nei? Kei hea ake ngā momo me ngā puninga (e.g., i Aotearoa, i tāwāhi, ngā kāinga noho, te kaha ki te whakapīrara haere)? Āhea ka kori ake (e.g., ngā koringa ā-kaupeka, te whakaputa uri, te whānau hua, te āhua i te takurua)? He pēhea te āhua o te noho (e.g., ngā tino kai, ngā tipu ka āta nohoia, ngā hoariri māori)?

Ko te nuinga o ngā Auchenorrhyncha o Aotearoa, he kori awatea. Kitea ai i ngā ngahere me ngā wāhi ururua mai i ngā whenua hakahaka, piki atu ki ngā maunga, otirā ko ētahi kei te takiraha, kei ngā whenua pātītī, me ngā taiao āhua mārakerake i ngā maunga. Ko te nuinga o ngā momo māori, ka noho whāiti ki ō rātou rīpoinga māori tūturu. Engari ko ētahi e noho ana i ngā pūnaha hauropi kua raweketia e te tangata, tae atu ki ngā papa whakatipu rākau rāwaho. Ahakoa he rerekē ia whānau, ia puninga, kitea nuitia ai ngā momo e kawe ana i ā rātou mahi i ngā tipu me ngā rākau poto, i te papa tonu rānei. E 20% noa iho ngā momo e mōhiotia ana ngā tipu e piri atu ai rātou. Waihoki, mō te nuinga o ngā momo, kāore e mōhiotia ana ngā āhuatanga tāpua me te koiora o ngā punua. E ai ki ngā taunakitanga ā-waha, ko ētahi o ngā hoariri māori matua o ngā Auchenorrhyncha o Aotearoa, ko ngā wāpu pirinoa, ngā manu, ngā pītara konihi, ngā pūngāwerewere, me ngā pūwereriki. Hui katoa, ko tōna 25% o te rōpū whānui nei he poto ngā parihau, karekau rānei he parihau. Nō reira ehara pea ko te rere tētahi ara e pīrara haere ai ēnei momo.

Kotahi rau, e iwa tekau mā ono ngā momo o Aotearoa kua oti te āta whakaahua ā-kupu. Ko tētahi 13% tēnei o te rahi o ngā momo o Ahitereiria — kei te takiwā o te 1500 ngā momo o reira. I tēnei wā, 15 ngā whānau Auchenorrhyncha kei Ahitereiria kāore e kitea i Aotearoa. E 24 ngā momo rāwaho kei Aotearoa e noho ana — he tata tēnei ki te 12% o ngā momo katoa. Karekau he whānau kotahi ko Aotearoa anake te whenua e noho ai ōna momo katoa, engari katoa ngā peke-rau noho papa (o te whānau Myerslopiidae) nō konei anake, ā, koia tētahi 70% o ngā momo katoa o tēnei rōpū, puta noa i te ao. Ko ngā whānau rahi katoa i Aotearoa, ko ngā peke-rau, a ngāi Cicadellidae (e 78 ngā momo, ko tētahi 40% tēnei o te rōpū nui tonu), ngā kihikihi, a ngāi Cicadidae (e 34 ngā momo, ko tētahi 17% tēnei), me ngā peke-tipu cixiid, a ngāi Cixiidae (e 26 ngā momo, ko tētahi 13%). Heoi anō, kitea nuitia ai ēnei whānau i Ahitereiria anō hoki.

Ko te nuinga o ngā momo e noho ana ki Aotearoa me Ahitereiria, kei ngā wāhi katoa o te ao, ā, i tatū mai pea ki konei i wāhi kē. Ko te nuinga o ngā momo māori kei Aotearoa me ōna kiritata, ka kitea anō i te rāwhiti o Aotearoa, ā, he iti ake ka kitea anō i Tahimania, i te Moutere Norfolk, ā, he torutoru ka kitea anō i te Moutere o Lord Howe me te Whenua Kanaki. Ko Te Uri Māroa pea te pūtakenga mai o ēnei āhuatanga ōrite. Pērā anō i ngā tōpito huhua o te ao, he whānau matahuhua tonu a ngāi Cicadellidae (ngā peke-rau), ā, kitea nuitia ai ngā āhuatanga ōrite o roto i tēnei rōpū. Muri iho, ko te whānau Delphacidae (ngā peke-tipu delphacid). E 20 o roto i te 50 (ko tētahi 40%) o ngā puninga o Aotearoa, kei Ahitereiria anō (tae atu ki Tahimania, te Moutere Norfolk, me te Moutere o Lord Howe). Kia heke ki te papanga momo, e 5% tēnei.

E kitea ana i ngā mahere whakaatu i te tītaringa o ngā momo, kua whānui ake te hora o te nuinga o ngā momo i tērā i whakapaetia. Me te hāngai anō o tēnei kōrero ki ngā momo kua rangahautia nuitia. Heoi anō, e 95 pea ngā momo māori (ko tētahi 55% tēnei o ngā momo māori katoa) kei ētahi taupori tekau, iti ake rānei. E tika ana pea kia tirohia ēnei taupori i raro i ngā kaupapa whāomoomo i ngā aitanga pepeke.

He maha ake ngā momo (133) kei Te Waka-a-Māui, ā, e 64 o ēnei kāore e kitea i moutere kē. He paku iti ake (119) ngā momo kei Te Ika-ā-Māui, a, e 44 o ēnei kāore e kitea i moutere kē. Kua eke pea ki te 65 ngā rōpū kei Te Ika me Te Waka-a-Māui. Kei ētahi o ngā huinga moutere o waho ētahi momo māori torutoru nei. Ko Wharekauri tērā (12), ko ngā Moutere Kermadec (10), me Manawatāwhi (21). Kāore anō kia kitea he Auchenorrhyncha i ngā moutere ahu atu ki Te Kōpakatanga ki te Tonga (arā, ki ngā Antipodes, ki ngā Moutere o Auckland, o Bounty, te Moutere o Campbell, ki Snares rānei).

I te tuawhenua o Aotearoa, ko ngā wāhi e mōhiotia ana kei reira te tino matahuhuatanga, ko Te Tai Tokerau, ko Tāmaki, me Te Upoko-o-te-Ika i Te Ika-a-Māui, ko te rohe uru-mā-raki o Whakatū, ko ngā whenua waenga o Waitaha i Te Waipounamu. Heoi, he maha anō ngā momo rāwaho o Ahitereiria, o hea ake kei aua takiwā. Ki te tohunga koiora, ko ngā wāhi e tino nui ai ngā momo kāore e kitea i wāhi kē o Aotearoa, o te ao rānei, koia kē ngā wāhi tino whai take hei rangahau. Koinei te āhua ki Te Tai Tokerau, ki Te Upoko-o-te-Ika, i Te Ika-a-Māui, me te rohe uru-mā-raki o Whakatū, a Wairau, te rohe waenga o Waitaha, a Piopiotahi, me Murihiku i Te Waipounamu. Ā, kāore e kore ko Piopiotahi me ōna whenua urutapu kāore anō kia kaha pōkaihia e te tangata, koia tētahi wāhi ka nui atu ōna momo pērā.

Ko ngā rohe kei reira te maha atu o ngā momo rāwaho, ko ngā wāhi āhua mahana ake o Aotearoa, ko ngā tumu waka hokohoko matua, me ngā wāhi ahuwhenua nui (ko Tāmaki, ko Te Matau-a-Māui, ko Whakatū, ko Ōtautahi). He maha ngā momo rāwaho e pakari ana ngā parihau, e āhei pai ana ki te whakapīrara haere. Ko ētahi ka whakawaia e te aho horihori, ā, ko te nuinga, ka urutau pai noa iho ki ngā taiao kua āhua rawekehia, kua kaha tonu rānei te rawekehia.

Translated by: Hēni Jacob, Ōtaki