Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

FNZ 63 - Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue - Abstract

Larivière, M-C; Fletcher, MJ; Larochelle, A 2010. Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue. Fauna of New Zealand 63, 232 pages.
( ISSN 0111-5383 (print), ISSN 1179-7193 (online) ; no. 63. ISBN 978-0-478-34720-3 (print) , ISBN 978-0-478-34721-0 (online) ). Published 16 Jun 2010
ZooBank: http://zoobank.org/References/ED0686ED-A8A6-42C2-AEFA-CDDBE9BF001D

Abstract

Auchenorrhyncha are a highly diverse group of hemimetabolous insects and a major component of the phytophagous insect fauna in most terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. They are treated here as a suborder of the Hemiptera and include the planthoppers (infraorder Fulgoromorpha), cicadas, froghoppers, spittlebugs, treehoppers, and leafhoppers (infraorder Cicadomorpha). With their piercing sucking mouthparts the majority of Auchenorrhyncha species feed on phloem or xylem (plant sap) or plant cell contents (parenchyma or cell ruptures) although some species feed on mosses or fungi. This economically important group includes several plant pests pests and several vectors of plant pathogens, including phytoplasmas, viruses, and bacteria.

Auchenorrhyncha have been collected extensively and are well represented in New Zealand entomological museums and collections. Despite this, no up-to-date catalogue has been published since Wise’s (1977) “ ... synonymic checklist of the Hexapoda of the New Zealand sub-region ...” which enumerated 64 genera and 160 species in 11 families. Numerous nomenclatural changes and new taxa have been published since then, and the fauna now totals 68 genera and 196 species in 12 families.

In this biosystematics catalogue, the species-group names of all New Zealand Cicadomorpha and Fulgoromorpha are catalogued with distribution records and information on biology and wing condition (as indicative of flight ability). Valid names are listed in their current and original combinations with the author(s), publication date, page citation, type status, type repository, type locality, and biostatus. Synonyms are given in their original combinations. Other existing combinations are provided. Genus-group names are listed with the author(s), publication date, page citation, type species (including method of fixation), and biostatus. The catalogue is arranged alphabetically by infraorders, superfamilies, families, subfamilies, tribes, genus-group, and species-group names. Under each species, the geographic distribution, biology, and wing condition are given. Selected references dealing with taxonomy (including keys and revisions), distribution, biology, and dispersal power are also provided where appropriate.

The catalogue also includes a bibliography of over 500 references (including original taxonomic descriptions), colour photographs of 133 primary types deposited in New Zealand collections (covering about 68% of all described taxa), 207 maps showing species and subspecies distributions, four maps showing patterns of taxonomic diversity and species endemism, and a full taxonomic index. Finally, 8 appendices are provided: glossary, list of approximately 300 plants associated with Auchenorrhyncha, acronyms of entomological collections and museums, list of taxa incorrectly recorded or doubtfully established in New Zealand, geographical coordinates of over 380 collecting localities, alphabetical lists of valid taxa by areas of New Zealand, type localities of valid species described from New Zealand, and a list of about 95 taxa with limited distribution and which are of potential conservation importance. This catalogue brings together the available literature and collection-based information on New Zealand Fulgoromorpha and Cicadomorpha for use by biosystematists, identifiers, biosecurity and conservation managers, ecologists and other biologists, as well as members of the public.

The composition of the New Zealand auchenorrhynchan fauna and its affinities with Australia, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, and New Caledonia are analysed and discussed. It is estimated that, once fully described, the fauna could total 300–350 species. Endemism is high with 81% of species and 41% of genera currently recognised as being endemic; New Zealand is regarded as a biodiversity “hot spot”. The fauna shows greatest affinity to that of eastern continental Australia. Twenty-four (24) adventive (introduced) taxa occur in New Zealand, including some economically important species, e.g., Philaenus spumarius (Linnaeus, 1758), Aphrophoridae; Anzygina dumbletoni (Ghauri, 1963), Edwardsiana froggatti (Baker, 1925), Eupteryx melissae Curtis, 1837, Orosius argentatus (Evans, 1938), Ribautiana tenerrima (Herrich-Schäffer, 1834), Rhytidodus decimaquartus (Schrank, 1776), Cicadellidae; Anzora unicolor (Walker, 1862), Flatidae; Scolypopa australis (Walker, 1851), Ricaniidae.

The following new combinations are made: Arawa negata (White, 1879) for Athysanus negatus White, 1879, Nesoclutha phryne (Kirkaldy, 1907) for Nesoclutha pallida (Evans, 1942) (Cicadellidae); Cermada inexspectata (Larivière, 1999) for Cixius inexspectatus Larivière, 1999, Cermada triregia (Larivière, 1999) for Cixius triregius Larivière, 1999 (Cixiidae). Arawa salubris Knight, 1975 is synonymised with Arawa negata (White, 1879). The following Cicadellidae taxa have been incorrectly recorded or doubtfully established in New Zealand: Alodeltocephalus obliquus (Evans, 1938), Balclutha rieki Knight, 1987, Edwardsiana crataegi (Douglas, 1876), Japananus hyalinus (Osborn, 1900), Limotettix incertus Evans, 1966, Paracephaleus montanus (Evans, 1942). The cicadellid genus Athysanus Burmeister, 1838, is excluded from the fauna.

The areas of New Zealand showing the highest taxonomic diversity are: North Island – Wellington (73 species-group taxa), Auckland (64), Northland (60); South Island – Northwest Nelson (65), Mid Canterbury (56). The areas displaying the highest number of New Zealand endemics are: North Island – Wellington (63 species-group taxa), Northland (47), Taupo (46), Auckland (45), Bay of Plenty (40); South Island – Northwest Nelson (50), Buller (45), Mid Canterbury (40). The areas known for the highest number of local endemics are: North Island – Northland (5), Wellington (5); South Island – Northwest Nelson (4).

New Zealand Auchenorrhyncha are generally diurnal and live in lowland to mountain forests and shrublands, although a number of groups are found typically in open habitats such as tussock grasslands and in subalpine environments. Indigenous species usually live within the confines of their natural habitats but some species also live in modified ecosystems and exotic tree plantations. Depending on families and genera, species can be predominantly planticolous, arboreal, or even epigean. The hostplants are known with certainty for less than 20% of taxa. The taxonomy and biology of immature stages are largely unknown for the majority of taxa. Anecdotal evidence suggests that parasitic wasps, birds, predatory beetles, spiders, and mites may be among the major natural enemies of New Zealand Auchenorrhyncha. Overall, about 25% of the fauna is either brachypterous or micropterous. Active dispersal by flight is unlikely for the majority of New Zealand species.