Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

FNZ 53 - Harpalini (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalinae) - Māori summary

Larochelle, A; Larivière, M-C 2005. Harpalini (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalinae). Fauna of New Zealand 53, 160 pages.
( ISSN 0111-5383 (print), ; no. 53. ISBN 0-478-09369-1 (print) ). Published 04 Jul 2005
ZooBank: http://zoobank.org/References/5A8BF6BE-EA73-4476-8C81-E4F00709AC9B

Māori summary — He Whakarāpopototanga

Ngā pītara Harpaline noho papa

Nō te whānau whāiti Harpalinae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) a ngāi Harpalini. Puta noa i te ao, 1900 ōna rōpū. E ai ki ngā raraunga raupapa rāpoi ngota, nō te Takiwā Cretaceous tōna kunenga mai (i te 140–65 miriona tau ki muri).

He iwi matahuhua tonu a ngāi Harpalini – he nui atu i te 240 ngā puninga me ngā puninga iti, he āhua 2000 ngā momo, kei ngā takiwā papawhenua-koiora katoa o te ao. I tēnei tirohanga hou, kua tuhia he mauranga mō ngā puninga e 20 me ngā momo e 57 i Aotearoa. Ko te whakaaro ia, he ruarua noa iho ngā momo kāore i mau i tēnei tatauranga.

Ina whakaritea ki ngā whenua rahi ake, mahana ake o te ao (hei tauira, arā a Ahitereiria me ōna momo 160 e mōhiotia ana, tae atu ki te maha noa atu kāore anō i whakaahuatia ā-kupu) tērā ka whakaarohia he torutoru noa iho ngā momo o Aotearoa. Engari he whenua ahurei tonu a Aotearoa, inā rā, ko tētahi 75% o ngā momo (e 42 o ngā momo e 57) me tētahi 55% o ngā puninga (11 o ngā puninga e 20) i Aotearoa nei, kāore e kitea i whenua kē. Ko ērā atu momo ehara nō konei taketake ake, he rāwaho, ko te nuinga i manene mai i Ahitereiria. Karekau he momo māori o Aotearoa kei Ahitereiria anō e noho ana, engari e toru ngā puninga māori kei ngā whenua e rua nei. E tohu ana tēnei tērā tonu pea i kukune motuhake mai ngā tātai harpaline o Aotearoa i muri i te wehewehenga o te pito rāwhiti o Te Uri Māroa.

He āhua porotaka ngā tinana o ngā pītara noho papa Harpalini, he āhua poto ngā kauwae me ērā atu wāhanga toro whakawaho o te tinana. Ko te roa o te tinana, mai i te 3 ki te 20 mm. He uriuri te tae o te nuinga, kotahi anake te mārua whai weu i runga ake o ia karu, kāore he mārua pēnei i ngā koki whakamuri o te papatua pohomua. He āhua kōpuku ngā pōkoro parirau i ngā kaokao, i te takiwā o te pito, kāore e kōrino. Heoi, arāētahi momo noho ana, kari rua rānei kāore e tino uriuri ngā tinana, he iti ake anō hoki ngā karu.

Pērā anō i te maha tonu o ngā carabid, he matahuhua ngā whakarōpōtanga o ngā pītara noho papa harpaline, he huhua anō tā rātou noho ki te taiao. He rerekē ngā kāinga noho e pai ana ki tēnā ki tēnā he tāwariwari anō te āhua o tā rātou aro atu ki ngā āhuatanga taiao. Nāēnei āhuatanga, nā te māmā anō ki te tīpako i ngā taupori i runga i ngā tikanga ine ā-rahi tōtika (pēnei i te hopu ki te tomo), me tō rātou pai anō pea hei tohu koiora, hei kaipatu koiora rānei, he rōpō tēnei e arohia nuitia ana e ngā tohunga koiora e whakamātau ana i ngā whakapae mō te kunenga me te taupuhi kaiao.

Me te aha, he autaia tonu te maha o ngā Harpalini e puritia ana ki ngā whare pepeke me ngā kohinga pepeke i Aotearoa – he nui ake i te 5000 ngā tauira i āta tirohia mō tēnei rangahautanga. Engari ahakoa te aro nui ki tēnei iwi, kātahi anō ka tirohia anō te whakarōpūtanga o ngā hanga nei.

I mua i tēnei o ngā tirohanga, 13 ngā puninga, e 36 ngā momo i mōhiotia i Aotearoa nei. Engari ko tā ngā kaituhi i kite ai, arāētahi momo i tapaina ki ngā ingoa e rua, neke atu rānei, me ōna anō kupu whakaahua i te taha. Ā, e 23 ngā momo, e 5 ngā puninga kāore i mōhiotia i te ao pūtaiao i mua atu i tēnei.

Waihoki, kāore i tuhia te tohanga o ngā momo māori i mua atu i tēnei rangahautanga. Nā tēnei mahi rangahau kua kaha ake te mōhio ki ō rātou tauira tohatoha. Hei tauira, i kitea arāētahi momo maha tonu e noho motuhake ana ki ētahi rohe whāiti o Aotearoa – ko te uru-mā-raki o Te Waipounamu me Muriwhenua ētahi tino mātāpuna, ā-wā papawhenua nei, o te matahuhuatanga o te huinga ira o ngā Harpalini o Aotearoa. He maha hoki ngā momo kāore e kitea i waho atu o ēnei takiwā He maha ake ngā momo i Te Ika a Māui (e 35 ngā momo), tēnā i Te Waipounamu (e 31 ngā momo), ā, e 4 anake ngā momo māori (Allocinopus sculpticollis, Triplosarus novaezelandiae, Syllectus anomalus, Euthenarus puncticollis) kei ngā moutere e rua nei. E 3 ngā puninga (Gaioxenus, Parabaris me Kupeharpalus) kei Te Ika a Māui anake, e 2 (Hakaharpalus me Pholeodytes – he momo noho ana) kei te uru-mā-raki o Te Waipounamu anake. E 2 ngā puninga kāore e kitea i waho atu o Manawa-tāwhi (Maoriharpalus, Kiwiharpalus). Karekau he puninga e kitea ana i Rēkohu anake. Waihoki, kāore he rōpū e kitea ana i Rakiura anake, engari e 2 ōna momo māori, ko: Triplosarus novaezelandiae (kei Rēkohu, kei Te Ika a Māui me Te Waipounamu), me Euthenarus brevicollis (kei Rēkohu me Te Waipounamu).

He nui ake i te 50% o ngā momo māori (e 25 o ngā momo e 42), nō roto i ngā taupori 10, iti ake rānei. E 24 o ēnei momo, kātahi anō ka mōhiotia i te ao pūtaiao, ā, ko te katoa me āta tiaki ka tika kei korehāhā haere. Ko te nuinga, he māmā ki te wehewehe, tētahi i tētahi, i te nui o ngā rerekētanga, kāore e kaha te marara haere, e noho whāiti ana ki ngā ripoinga mōrearea, ā, he ruarua ngā tauira o tēnā, o tēnā kua kohia i roto i ngā tekau tau, e tohu ana he momo onge tonu pea, he tino whāiti rānei ō rātou kāinga noho.

Kāore anō i āta rangahaua ngā hītori māori o tēnā, o tēnā momo o ngāi Harpalini i Aotearoa, engari i whakarāpopotohia e Larochelle rāua ko Larivière (2001, Fauna of New Zealand 43) ngā pārongo kua tuhia, ngā rauemi i ngā kohinga pepeke, ngā whakawhitinga kōrero ki ngā kaikohikohi carabid, me ō rāua ake kitenga i te taiao.

He rere kore te nuinga o ngā momo māori, he tumu parirau noa iho, he mea hanga ki te kiriuhi, e toe mai ana. Ka mutu, noho ai te nuinga ki ngā ripoinga māori, arā, ki ngā ngahere māori (ko ngā tahataha o ngā kōawa tētahi tino kāinga) tae atu ki ngā kāinga kōreporepo, ngā whenua pātītī taranui me ngā ana. He pai ki te nuinga tēnei mea te haukū, ā, tērā ka noho ki te mata tonu o te whenua, ki ngā rau popo. Arā anō ētahi ko te ana tō rātou wāhi noho, ā, he torutoru ngā momo ka piri tahi ki ngā rākau me ērā atu tipu. Ko te tikanga tītari a te nuinga o ngā momo māori, ko te takahi i te nuku o te whenua; he āhua tere te haere a te nuinga, engari he tere tonu te momo noho ana, waewae roa (Syllectus, Pholeodytes). He poto ngā waewae o te nuinga o ngāi Harpalini, ā, he tino ngoikore ngā karu, e tohu ana he kari rua, he noho rua tā rātou mahi.

Katoa ngā momo rāwaho, he mōhio ki te rere, ā, he roa, he pakari rānei ō rātou parirau kiriuhi. Noho ai te nuinga ki ngā taiao kua kaha rawekehia e te ringa tangata (he maha e noho tata ana ki ngā whare), hāunga anō te Haplanister crypticus. Kua urutomo anō tēnei nā i ngā ngahere māori.

Ko te wā e kohikohia ai ngā pītara pakeke kātahi anō ka puta ake ki te ao e tohu ana tērā pea ko te kōanga, ko te ngahuru rānei te wā e whakaputa uri ai a ngāi Harpalini. Mō te nuinga o ngā momo, e oreore ana ngā mea pakeke i ngā marama katoa o te tau, engari ka āhua ngoikore ake i ngā marama makariri ake.

Karekau he raraunga mō ngā kai e pai ana ki ngā Harpalini māori. Heoi, nā Larochelle (1990, Food of carabid beetles of the World) i whakaatu kai ai ngā Harpalini o te ao i te kiko me te ota, engari ko te ota pea tā rātou tino kai. He roa ake ngā kauwae o Hakaharpalus, Kiwiharpalus, Syllectus, Pholeodytes, me Maoriharpalus i ērā o te nuinga o ngā momo māori, e tohu ana pea he rerekē ngā momo kai kainga ai e rātou. I tua atu i tērā, arā‘tahi kāniwha nui i te ngutu o runga o Maoriharpalus, e āhua rite ana ki tērā e kitea ana i te iwi Licinini. Ko tā tērā iwi, he kai i ngā hanga tuarā-kore, tinana mārō, pērā i te ngata.

He mea tuhi tēnei tirohanga hou kia mārama ai ngā kōrero ki te tokomaha. E whai ana kia takoto mai he rārangi o ngā rōpū e noho ana ki Aotearoa nei, he whakamārama poto o ō rātou tātai hono, he ara tautohu māmā, he whakaahua, he mahere, tae atu ki tētahi whakarā-popototanga o ngā pārongo e wātea ana mō te tohanga o ngā momo, te taupuhi kaiao, te koiora, me te kaha ki te tītari haere i a rātou anō. He takahanga noa tēnei i roto i te whāinga roa a ngā kaituhi kia whānui noa ake te māramatanga ki ngā carabid i roto i te tekau tau pea e tū mai nei, kia hora he pārongo huhua hei āwhina i ngā tāngata tokomaha i roto i ā rātou kaupapa maha. Ko te tūmanako ia, kia noho tēnei tūmomo whakarōpūtanga hei tūāpapa mō ngā mahi rangahau i ētahi atu pepeke, hei puna kōrero hoki mā ngā kaitātai whakapapa, ngā kaitautohu, ngā tohunga taupuhi kaiao, me ētahi atu ringa koiora, tae atu ki ngā kaiwhakahaere haumaru koiora, tiaki taiao.

Translated by: Hēni Jacob, Tāmaki-makau-rau / Auckland