Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

FNZ 46 - Nesameletidae (Insecta : Ephemeroptera) - Māori summary

Hitchings, TR; Staniczek, AH 2003. Nesameletidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera). Fauna of New Zealand 46, 72 pages.
( ISSN 0111-5383 (print), ; no. 46. ISBN 0-478-09349-7 (print) ). Published 14 May 2003
ZooBank: http://zoobank.org/References/BAB59AE7-4C0F-4901-A54C-76CA14D8B3A2

He whakarāpopototanga

Ngā rangitahi kauhoe

Kāore e tino nui, kāore rānei e tino iti ngā rangitahi o Aotearoa (Ephemeroptera). E whā ngā parirau kiriuhi o ngā mea pakeke. He rahi noa ake ngā parirau o mua i ngā parirau o muri, ā, kia whakangā te rangitahi, kua tū matika ngā parirau o mua. E toru ngā io i te tou o te rangitahi pakeke o Aotearoa. Ka noho ngā io nei hei ‘whiore’ mōna. E rua, ko te katoa rānei o ēnei io, he tino roa rawa atu. He noho wai ngā punua, ā, he pihapiha kei ana kaokao he rite ki te rau iti te hanga. Ka noho mai ngā pihapiha nei ki ngā wāhanga tuatahi e whitu o tana puku. E toru anō hoki ngā io i te tou o te punua. Pērā anō i ērā atu pūtoi pepeke, kitea ai ngā rangitahi i ngā tōpito katoa o te ao, hāunga anō ētahi moutere i te aumoana me ngā kōpakatanga o te ao. Heoi anō, he pūtoi iti te Ephemeroptera, ā, kāore anō kia tautohua ōna huānga katoa. Taka mai ki tēnei wā, e 2500 ngā momo kua whakaingoatia.  I Aotearoa nei, e 40 ngā rangitahi o te pūtoi Ephemeroptera kua whakaahuatia ā-kupu, nō ētahi whānau e 8, engari kāore e kore arā ētahi huānga kāore anō i mōhiotia. Ko tētahi toru hauwhā o ngā momo e mōhiotia ana, nō te whānau Leptophlebiidae. Ko te nuinga o ngā leptophlebiid o Aotearoa, he whai urutaunga e pai ai tā rātou piri ki te mata whakararo o ngā kōhatu me ngā toka i te kōawa. Engari ko ngā momo o te whānau Nesameletidae, ko ōna uri i Aotearoa nei nō te puninga kotahi e kīia ana ko te Nesameletus, ka kauhoe noa, ka āhei anō ki te kōkirikiri ki hea, ki hea hei karo i te hoariri. Me te waka whāiti te hanga o te tinana, ā, nā tērā me ngā io whai huruhuru e toru i tana tou, ka tere tonu tana kauhoe ki kō i runga i te oreore whakarunga, whakararo o te tinana. Koirā i karangahia ai tēnei whānau e te hunga hī ika ko ‘te hanga kōkirikiri kiwikiwi’. E rua atu anō ngā whānau rangitahi o Aotearoa kei a rātou ēnei urutaunga taha tinana, ko ngāi Rallidentidae me ngāi Siphlaenigmatidae. Heoi, me uaua ēnei ka kitea. Ko Aotearoa anake te whenua e kitea ai te puninga Nesameletus me ngā momo e rima o tēnei puninga kua whakaahuatia. Ko ērā atu huānga o te whānau nei, kei te taha tonga o Amerika ki te Tonga, ā, kei te tonga-mā-whiti o Ahitereiria.

I tēnei o ngā rangahautanga, e kīia ana ngā punua noho wai o te rangitahi he torongū. Ka tipu ake te tino nuinga o ngā momo rangitahi o Aotearoa i ngā wai rere para kore. Kai ai ngā punua i te pūkohu me ētahi atu tipu, ana ka huri hei ‘pūngao koiora’. He tino wāhi kei a rātou i roto i te meka kai. Ka whakawhiti atu te pūngao koiora nei i ngā rangitahi ki ō rātou hoariri, arā, ki ētahi atu pepeke, ki ngā kōurapaka, ki ngā ika, me ngā manu.

Kua marara te noho a ngā Nesameletidae ki te motu whānui, engari e toru ngā momo kei Te Waipounamu anake, ā, e rua o ēnei e noho ana ki ētahi rohe whāiti. Katoa te whānau, ka noho ki ngā kōawa iti me ngā kuikuinga, ki ngā otaota tārewa pea i ngā wāhi kāore e tino tere te rere o te wai.

Ka kotahi tau ngā torongū Nesameletus e tipu ana, ka eke te roa o te tinana ki waenga i te 10 mm me te 20 mm. He maha ngā kounutanga i tana kiri e taea ai tēnei. I mua tata mai i te kounutanga whakamutunga, ka puta te torongū i te wai, ka piki mō ētahi henimita ki tētahi toka kei runga paku ake i te mata o te wai, ki reira whakarere ai i tana kahu torongū. ānana, puta ake ana ko te rangitahi taiohi. Ko te tūātipu whai parirau tuatahi tēnei o ētahi tūātipu whai parirau e rua. Kāore anō i pakeke rawa te hanga o te rangitahi i tēnei wā — ko ngā taonga whakaputa uri tētahi wāhanga ōna kāore anō i pakari. Ka rere te pepeke nei ki tētahi wāhi pātata i te taha o te kōawa, kia pai ai tana huna ki ngā otaota e tipu ana i reira. He tata ki te rua rā he whakatā kau te mahi, kātahi ka kounu anō, ka puta ko te rangitahi pakeke. Ka rere, ka whakaputa uri, ā, he rā noa iho pea i muri mai, ka mate. Kāore he take o ngā wāhanga o te waha o te rangitahi taiohi me te rangitahi pakeke, nō reira kāore ia e kai. Ko te tikanga ka rere te uwha ki runga ake o te kōawa ki te whakaputa i ana hua, he mōhio nōna ka whai ngā hua me ngā torongū i te ia o te wai.  Tukuna ai ana hua ki te mata tonu o te wai, ki te wāhi o te kōawa kāore e tino kaha te ia.

He māmā te tautohu ā-karu i ngā torongū o ngā rangitahi kauhoe, engari me whakamahi rawa he arotahi ka puritia ki te ringa hei wehewehe i ngā Nesameletus mai i ngā Rallidens me ngā Siphlaenigma. Mā te whakamahi karu whakarahi ahutoru āhua kaha nei e tautohua ai ngā momo. Heoi anō, i ētahi wā, hei whakaū i te tautohunga, me āta tapahi te waha, ka āta tirotiro ki te karu whakarahi kaha tonu.

Hei wehewehe i ngā taiohi me ngā pakeke o te whānau Nesameletidae mai i ērā atu whānau rangitahi, ka tirohia ngā ioio o ngā parirau o mua, o muri anō hoki ki te arotahi ka puritia ki te ringa. Ka taea anō te tautohu ngā momo ina tirohia te tauira ioio o ngā parirau o mua ki te karu whakarahi āhua ngoikore nei. Mō te wāhi ki ngā taiohi, ka whakatairitea te tauira mataauahi i ngā ioio o te parirau o mua ki ngā whakaahua o ngā parirau o mua o ētahi momo kua āta whakatipuria. Mō te wāhi ki ngā mea pakeke, ko tōna tikanga mā te tirotiro i ngā taihemahema ki te karu whakarahi ngoikore nei, me te whakatairite ki ngā hoahoa e whakaūngia ai te tautohunga.

Translation by: Hēni Jacob, Huatau Consultants, Levin