Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

FNZ 45 - Nemonychidae, Belidae, Brentidae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) - Māori summary

Kuschel, G 2003. Nemonychidae, Belidae, Brentidae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Fauna of New Zealand 45, 100 pages.
( ISSN 0111-5383 (print), ; no. 45. ISBN 0-478-09348-9 (print) ). Published 28 Apr 2003
ZooBank: http://zoobank.org/References/9143DAB5-942F-4E3B-8E68-D47BB28498D5

He whakarāpopototanga

Ngā wīwhara Orthoceri

Ko ngā wīwhara Orthoceri o ngā whānau Nemonychidae, Belidae, me Brentidae te aronga o tēnei tuhinga. He tino karangatanga ngā wīwhara nō te kāhui pītara nui tonu. Arā tōna tino tohu, ko te tipu whakamua o te upoko, ko te waha, ko te ngutu rānei kei te pito rawa. He kai tipu ngā pakeke me te kōhungahunga. Ko te whakaaro he hanga pai, he hanga kino rānei te wīwhara, kei te āhua tonu o te noho taonga o ngā tipu e whai hononga ana ki te wīwhara ki te ōhanga o tētahi whenua. I te nuinga o te wā, kāore te wīwhara e whakararu i te iwi i tōna whenua ake, engari tērā ka noho hei hanga kino i whenua kē. Heoi anō, mēnā he momo wīwhara e noho motuhake ana ki tētahi otaota kino i tōna whenua ake, tērā ka āta tīkina atu taua wīwhara, i runga anō i ngā here tū taratahi e tika ana, ā, ina kitea kāore ōna pirinoa, kāore rānei ōna pānga kino ki ngā rākau māori, hei reira pea tukuna ai kia rarau te noho ki tana whenua hou. Kua whakanohoia kētia mai ki Aotearoa nei ētahi wīwhara hei patu i te kōhe me te kotimana, ā, e whakaarohia ana kia tīkina atu anō ētahi.

Kua 140 miriona tau, neke atu ngā wīwhara e ora ana ki tēnei ao, arā, nō te wā o ngā tipu kano tahanga (ngā cycad me ngā rākau whai huainohi) me ngā moko tuauri. Arā te huhua o ngā wīwhara mātātoka kua kitea, nō mua noa atu i te orokohanga ake o ngā tipu whaipua. Kua tino heke haere te maha o ngā tipu kano tahanga, engari ko ngā tipu whaipua, i puta tuatahi i te takiwā Cretaceous, kua tipu kia mano, kia rea - e 200,000 pea ngā momo puta noa i te ao. He whai ngutu roa ngā wīwhara o neherā, he roa, he tōhihi te kauwae, he roa anō ngā hihipā i ngā ngutu me te kauwae. E tohu ana te waha koinei te hanga he kai hae pea ngā wīwhara o tua whakarere. He whai huainohi rahi  - he tāne ētahi, he wāhine ētahi - (ka kīia he strobili) ngā tipu kano tahanga, ā, inā kē te nui o te hae mōmona ka hangaia e ngā huainohi tāne. Nō reira, e whakapaetia ana ko te hae anake pea te kai a ngā wīwhara o te takiwā Jurassic. Ka mutu, katoa ngā momo nemonychid e ora tonu ana, he kai hae anake, he tino kai rānei te hae nā rātou.

Kua wehea e te ao pūtaiao ngā wīwhara kia rua ngā karangatanga whānui: ko te Orthoceri tētahi, ko te tohu tautuhi i tēnei karangatanga, ko te noho rārangi tōtika mai o ngā wāhanga katoa o ngā pūhihi; ko ngā Gonatoceri anō tētahi, ānō nei kua whati, he whai 'tuke' rānei ō rātou pūhihi (i pērā ai i te mea he kotiti te ahunga o te wāhanga tuarua o ngā pūhihi, arā, te wāhanga ka whai i muri mai i te wāhanga i te pūtake). Katoa ngā wīwhara o te takiwā Jurassic me te Cretaceous o Raro, nō te karangatanga Orthoceri, ā, he rere tōtika ngā pūhihi, e tohu ana i te hononga ki ngā tipu kano tahanga. Ko te tino nuinga o ngā Nemonychidae, tae atu ki ētahi o ngā Belidae, e honoa tonutia ana ki ngā tipu kano tahanga, ā, kei te noho motuhake ki ngā Araucariaceae, ngā Podocarpaceae, me ngā Pinaceae.

Kei te aro whāiti tēnei o ngā tānga kōrero ki ētahi whānau Orthoceri e 3, arā, ngā Nemonychidae, ngā Belidae, me ngā Brentidae (kua oti i a Holloway (1982) te āta tirotiro tērā atu whānau Orthoceri, me ngā momo Anthribidae e 58, i Te Aitanga Pepeke o Aotearoa 3). Ahakoa kāore e kaha nohoia ana a Aotearoa e ēnei whānau e 3 (16 ngā momo nō konei taketake ake, 1 te momo rāwaho), he whānau e āta arohia nuitia ana e te hunga mātai pepeke mō te wāhi ki te koiora, te whakapapa, me te arowhenua-koiora. Katoa ngā momo Nemonychidae e 4, me ētahi momo Belidae e 5 o roto i te 6, e whai hononga ana ki ngā Podocarpaceae (te tōtara, te rimu, te mataī, te kahikatea me ērā atu o tēnei kāhui rākau) me ngā Phyllocladacaeae (te tānekaha me te toatoa). He tata ake ngā Nemonychidae o Aotearoa ki ngā Nemonychidae noho Podocarpaceae o Chile, tēnā i ērā o Ahitereira e noho ana ki ngā Araucariaceae, engari e 5 ngā momo Belidae e kaha rite ana ki ō Ahitereiria. Ko te belid tuaono, nō tētahi puninga o New Caledonia, ā, e honoa ana ki ngā Araliaceae.

E rua ngā whānau whāiti o nga Brentidae i Aotearoa, kāore e tino rite tētahi ki tētahi. Kotahi te puninga Brentinae nō Aotearoa taketake ake, kotahi anō te momo o roto i taua puninga. Koia tērā ko te pepeke nguturoa. Me kōrero te rerekē o te rahi me te hanga o te tinana o te toa me te uwha o tēnei momo. He ahurei te pepeke nguturoa, inā rā, koia anake te wīwhara huri i te ao e kitea atu ana tana papatua tapatoru. Ka mutu, he neke atu i te 8 cm te roa o ētahi o ngā toa. He roa noa ake tērā i ana whanaunga katoa o te whānau whāiti Brentinae. O te whānau whāiti Apioninae, e 5 ngā momo taketake ake o Aotearoa, kotahi te momo rāwaho. He mea āta tiki atu te rāwaho kotahi hei patu i te kōhe (Ulex europaeus). E toru ngā puninga taketake ake kotahi anō te momo o roto i ia puninga, ā, kāore ēnei e kitea i ētahi atu wāhi o te ao. Kāore ngā momo nei e tino rite, tētahi ki tētahi, kāore rānei e rite ki tētahi momo e kitea ana i wāhi kē o te ao. Ko te momo o tētahi o ngā puninga (te puninga Zelapterus) he tino pakupaku, he maheni, he mōhinuhinu anō te anga, he rerekore, ā, kāore e mōhiotia te momo rākau e noho ai ia. Ko te momo o tētahi atu puninga (a Cecydophyus), he rahi, he mōhinuhinu kore, he huruhuru anō te anga, ā, ko te tawai (Nothofagus menziesii) tana rākau noho. Ko te momo o te puninga tuatoru (a Strobilobius), he huruhuru kore ngā kahu parirau, otirā, he whai kōwakawaka. E arohia nuitia ana tēnei nā i te mea e whai hononga ana ki te pāhautea (Libocedrus bidwillii), he rākau huainohi nō te whānau cypress. Ko Aotearoa anake te kāinga e kitea ai te puninga tuawhā o te whānau whāiti Apioninae (a Neocyba). Noho tahi ai ngā momo e 2 o tēnei puninga ki te rātā me te pōhutukawa (ngā momo Metrosideros). Nō te kāwai kotahi tēnei puninga me tētahi o New Caledonia.

Translation by: Hēni Jacob, Huatau Consultants, Levin