FNZ 33 - Moranilini (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae: Eunotinae) - Abstract
Berry, JA 1995. Moranilini (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Fauna of New Zealand 33, 82 pages.
( ISSN 0111-5383 (print), ; no. 33. ISBN 0-478-04538-7 (print), ). Published 08 May 1995
The tribe Moranilini (Pteromalidae: Eunotinae) has an Australasian (particularly Australian) distribution, and its members are mostly parasitoids and egg predators of coccoids (Hemiptera). Three genera are recognised in New Zealand - Aphobetus Howard, Moranila Cameron, and Ophelosia Riley. Modronila Bouček andPidinka Bouček are regarded as junior synonyms of Aphobetus. Nine new species are described: Aphobetus cultratus, A. erroli, A. paucisetosus, Moranila aotearoae, M. strigaster, Ophelosia australis, O. charlesi, O. mcglashani, and O. stenopteryx. Eight species are redescribed: Aphobetus cyanea (Bouček), A. maskelli Howard, A. nana (Bouček), Moranila californica (Howard), M. comperei (Ashmead), Ophelosia bifasciata Girault, O. crawfordi Riley, and O. keatsi Girault. Seven synonymies are proposed: Moranila comperei = Tomocera saissetiae Girault, T. transversifasciata Girault, and T. io Girault; Ophelosia bifasciata = O. viridinotata Girault; O. crawfordi = O. sulcata Girault; O. keatsi = O. horatii Girault. Lectotypes are designated for Aphobetus maskelli, Tomocera transversifasciata, and Ophelosia sulcata.
Keys to the genera and species of Moranilini found in New Zealand are presented. Host relationships are examined, and possible areas of origin of widely distributed species are discussed. Evidence from host relationships, biogeographic events, and phylogeny suggest that the Moranilini originated in Australia, and that a minimum of five dispersal events to New Zealand have occurred. A vicariance argument to account for the biogeography of the tribe would require some lineages of at least 80 million years duration; this is considered unlikely. It is not known whether the tribe Moranilini occurs in South America, but if it does then this would suggest a minimum age for the tribe of around 55 million years.
The biological control of Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), P. calceolariae Maskell, and P. affinis (Maskell) in New Zealand is discussed. Two of these, and possibly the third, are of Australian origin. From host relationship and distribution data it is concluded that all known natural enemies in the Moranilini are well established here.
A checklist of taxa, a host/parasitoid list, and species distribution maps are included.