FNZ 13 - Encyrtidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) - Diagnosis of the Encyrtidae
Noyes, JS 1988. Encyrtidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Fauna of New Zealand 13, 192 pages.
( ISSN 0111-5383 (print), ; no. 13. ISBN 0-477-02517-X (print), ). Published 09 May 1988
Diagnosis of the Encyrtidae
Encyrtidae can be distinguished by the following combination of characters (see also Figures 1 - 5). General habitus fairly squat and robust. Length varying from about 0.3 mm to 3.0 mm.
Head with antennae situated variously near mouth margin to about halfway between mouth margin and anterior ocellus; scape length at least about one-third head width; pedicel short, subconical or flattened; female flagellum cylindrical to very broadened and flattened, 4 - 9-segmented; male flagellum cylindrical to slightly flattened or with branched segments, 3 - 8-segmented; a true anellus absent in both sexes; apical segment larger than those preceding, or distalmost 2 - 4 segments separated by septa only and forming a distinct club. Eyes moderately large, usually longer than shortest distance between eye and mouth margin. Mandibles ranging from long and narrow with 1 long, sickle-shaped tooth to very broad, with 4 teeth or without teeth.
Pronotum strongly transverse, usually shorter than mesoscutum. Mesoscutum transverse, without notaular lines or, if present, then lines extremely shallow, curved, and indistinct. Scutellum shield-shaped. Prepectus moderately large and free. Mesopleurum enlarged, occupying more than half of the thorax in lateral view, and often touching base of gaster. Forewing fully developed or reduced, occasionally absent; linea calva present; marginal vein generally very short, not more than 6 - 7x as long as broad, rarely longer; postmarginal and stigmal veins usually subequal in length, not very long, the postmarginal vein occasionally absent or considerably longer than the stigmal. Middle coxae, in profile, level with middle of mesopleurum; middle tibial spur relatively long and stout, usually subequal in length to basal segment of middle tarsus.
Abdomen with 2nd segment indistinct, extremely short and broad, so that gaster (abdominal segments 3 - 12) usually broadly sessile; 9th and 10th tergites fused; cercal plates advanced, often strongly so and then often situated in anterior third of gaster; last visible abdominal sternite (hypopygium) reaching variously about one-third along gaster to past apex of last tergite; ovipositor hidden or well exserted.