Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

FNZ 11 - Pseudococcidae (Insecta: Hemiptera) - Methods and Conventions

Cox, JM 1987. Pseudococcidae (Insecta: Hemiptera). Fauna of New Zealand 11, 232 pages.
( ISSN 0111-5383 (print), ; no. 11. ISBN 0-477-06791-3 (print), ). Published 07 Apr 1987

Methods and Conventions

Female mealybugs are far more commonly noticed than are males, adult males (Figure 3) being very small and winged. However, the cocoons in which they emerge from pupae are frequently to be found among colonies of females, and sometimes adult males may be found within these cocoons. Although little work has been done on the systematics of adult males, further work at the generic level may depend on them, and it would be useful for future workers if any adult males found in association with colonies of females were collected and preserved. As the systematics of mealybugs is based almost entirely on adult females, it is only these that are figured and illustrated in this account. Adult females look very similar to immature females, but are larger and may bear ovisacs (see Figure 2).


Mealybugs may be found on almost any part of their host plant, many species having characteristic positions. Relatively few species are found in exposed situations such as on the undersides of leaves; one of the more noticeable examples is the green or orange-coloured Paracoccus glaucus. Most species live in secluded positions such as under bark, in leaf sheaths and axils, in bracts, under calyces, or in soil on the roots. Mealybugs should be collected into 80% ethanol. At the same time, as much of the host plant as is necessary for its reliable identification may be taken.

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