Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

Catriona MacLeod

Catriona MacLeod
Position: Ecologist
Team: Ecosystems & Conservation
Location: Dunedin
Private Bag 1930
Dunedin 9054

Research Interests

Research Interests

Role at Landcare Research

Ecologist, Wildlife Ecology and Management, Dunedin

Environment Research Leader, Agricultural Research Group on Sustainability: 

Research interests

  • Biodiversity indicators of sustainable land management
  • Bird community and population dynamics
  • Invasion ecology, using introduced birds and their parasites as model systems

Professional affiliations / recognition.


Invited keynote speaker at the Barlow Symposium, New Zealand Ecological Society Conference, ‘Feathers to Fur,’ 22 November 2007


Invited speaker for a discussion group on ‘Strategies for successful bird conservation in arable and grassland systems’. International Ornithological Congress, Hamburg, 19 August 2006


Fast-Start Marsden awarded from the Royal Society of New Zealand


Editorial Board Member for New Zealand Journal of Ecology


Hayward Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, Landcare Research, Lincoln


Royal Society of London Postdoctoral Travelling Fellowship, Lincoln University


PhD studentship funded by Esmée Fairbairn Foundation & Game Conservancy Trust, UK


MSc studentship funded by European Social Fund


New Zealand Ecological Society


Ornithological Society of New Zealand


British Ecological Society


British Trust for Ornithology




  • Dundee
    PhD Ecology
  • Aberdeen
    MSc Ecology
  • Edinburgh
    BSc (Hons) Zoology



  • Wehi P, Carter L, Harawira TW, Fitzgerald G, Lloyd K, Whaanga H, MacLeod CJ 2019. Enhancing awareness and adoption of cultural values through use of Māori bird names in science communication and reporting. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 43(3): 3387. (Journal Article, 2019)
  • MacLeod CJ, Brandt AJ, Collins K, Dicks LV, Shackelford G, Wordley C, Sutherland W 2019. Cost-effective mechanisms for ensuring New Zealand makes best use of global scientific evidence. New Zealand Sustainability Dashboard Policy Brief Series. (Other, 2019)
  • MacLeod CJ, Brandt AJ, Collins K, Miller S, Shackelford G, Dicks LV 2019. Co-design evidence-based, locally-relevant and useful tools to improve sustainability performance. New Zealand Sustainability Dashboard Policy Brief Series. (Other, 2019)
  • Libertore A, Bowkett E, MacLeod CJ, Spurr E, Longnecker N. Social Media as a Platform for a Citizen Science Community of Practice. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. 3(1), p.3. DOI: (Journal Article, 2018)
  • MacLeod CJ, Howard S, Green P, Gormley AM, Wehi P, Brandt AJ, Spurr EB 2017. State of New Zealand garden birds 2016, Te āhua o ngā manu o te kāri i Aotearoa. Landcare Research. 38 p. (Report, 2017)
  • Green P, MacLeod CJ 2016. SIMR: an R package for power analysis of generalised linear mixed models by simulation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 7(4): 493-498. (Journal Article, 2016)
  • Wood JR, MacLeod CJ, Gormley AM, Tompkins DM, Butler SJ 2016. Ecological requirements of NZ birds. Landcare Research NZ Ltd. (Online Database, 2016)
  • MacLeod CJ, Green P, Tompkins DM, Benge J, Moller H 2016. Optimising survey effort to monitor environmental variables: a case study using New Zealand kiwifruit orchards. Journal of Environmental Management 183(1): 13-21. (Journal Article, 2016)
  • de Olde EM, Moller H, Marchand F, McDowell RW, MacLeod CJ, Sautier M, Halloy S, Barber A, Benge J, Bockstaller C, Bokkers EAM, de Boer IJM, Legun KA, Le Quellec I, Merfield C, Oudshoorn FW, Reid J, Schader C, Szymanski E, Sørensen CAG, Whitehead J, Manhire J 2016. When experts disagree: the need to rethink indicator selection for assessing sustainability of agriculture. Environment, Development and Sustainability 19(4): 1327-1342. (Journal Article, 2016)
  • MacLeod CJ, Green P, Gormley AM, Spurr EB 2015. Use of NZ Garden Bird Survey data in environmental reporting: preliminary models to account for spatial variation in sampling effort. Ministry for the Environment. 37 p. (Report, 2015)
  • Merfield C, Moller H, Manhire J, Rosin C, Norton S, Carey P, Hunt L, Reid J, Fairweather J, Benge J, Le Quellec I, Campbell H, Lucock D, Saunders C, MacLeod C, Barber A, McCarthy A 2015. Are organic standards sufficient to ensure sustainable agriculture? Lessons from New Zealand’s ARGOS and Sustainability Dashboard projects. Sustainable Agriculture Research 4(3): 158-172. (Journal Article, 2015)
  • Jones CJ, Lyver POB, Macleod CJ, Whitehead AL, Forrester GJ 2015. Variation in productivity of Grey-faced Petrels (Pterodroma gouldi) with local burrow density and breeding island. Emu 115(1): 20-28. (Journal Article, 2015)
  • Whitehead AL, Lyver PO, Jones CJ, Bellingham PJ, MacLeod CJ, Coleman M, Karl BJ, Drew K, Pairman D, Gormley AM, Duncan RP 2014. Establishing accurate baseline estimates of breeding populations of a burrowing seabird, the grey-faced petrel (Pterodroma macroptera gouldi) in New Zealand. Biological Conservation 169: 109-116. (Journal Article, 2014)
  • Bellingham PJ, Richardson SJ, Gormley AM, MacLeod CJ, Forsyth DM 2013. Department of Conservation biodiversity indicators: 2013 assessment. Landcare Research Contract Report ; LC1621. Landcare Research. 101 p. (Report, 2013)
  • MacLeod CJ, Moller H 2013. Environmental monitoring for sustainable land management in New Zealand’s production landscapes. NZ Sustainability Dashboard Research Report 13/10. ARGOS. 97 p. (Report, 2013)
  • MacLeod C, Blackwell G, Weller F, Moller H 2012. Designing a bird monitoring scheme for New Zealand’s agricultural sectors. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 36(3): 312-323. (Journal Article, 2012)
  • MacLeod CJ, Blackwell G, Benge J 2012. Reduced pesticide toxicity and increased woody vegetation cover account for enhanced native bird densities in organic orchards. Journal of Applied Ecology 49: 652-660. (Journal Article, 2012)
  • MacLeod CJ, Greene TC, MacKenzie DI, Allen RB 2012. Monitoring widespread and common bird species on New Zealand’s conservation lands: a pilot study. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 36(3): 300-311. (Journal Article, 2012)
  • MacLeod CJ, Tinkler G, Gormley AM, Spurr EB 2012. Measuring occupancy for an iconic bird species in urban parks. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 36(3): 398-407. (Journal Article, 2012)
  • Adams J, MacLeod C, Suryan RM, Hyrenbach KD, Harvey JT 2012. Summer-time use of west coast US National Marine Sanctuaries by migrating sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus). Biological conservation 156: 105-116. (Journal Article, 2012)
  • MacLeod CJ, Affeld K, Allen RB, Bellingham PJ, Forsyth DM, Gormley AM, Holdaway RJ, Richardson SJ, Wiser SK 2012. Department of Conservation biodiversity indicators: 2012 assessment. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 63 p. (Report, 2012)
  • MacLeod CJ, Drew KW, Coleman M 2011. Radio-tracking small farmland passerines: trade-offs in study design. Notornis 58(3&4): 113-123. (Journal Article, 2011)
  • MacLeod CJ, Tompkins DM, Drew KW, Pyke N 2011. Does farm-scale habitat composition predict pest-bird numbers and distribution? Wildlife Research 38(6): 464-474. (Journal Article, 2011)
  • MacLeod CJ, Paterson AM, Tompkins DM, Duncan RP 2010. Parasites lost - do invaders miss the boat or drown on arrival ? Ecology letters 13: 516-527. (Journal Article, 2010)
  • MacLeod CJ, Newson SE, Blackwell G, Duncan RP 2009. Enhanced niche opportunities: can they explain the success of New Zealand's introduced bird species? Diversity and Distributions 15(1): 41-49. (Journal Article, 2009)
  • MacLeod CJ, Blackwell G, Moller H, Innes J, Powlesland R 2008. The forgotten 60%: bird ecology and management in New Zealand's agricultural landscape. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 32(2): 240-255. (Journal Article, 2008)
  • Moller H, MacLeod CJ, Haggerty J, Rosin C, Blackwell G, Perley C, Meadows S, Weller F, Gradwohl M 2008. Intensification of New Zealand agriculture: implications for biodiversity. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 51(3): 253-263. (Journal Article, 2008)
  • MacLeod CJ, Adams J, Lyver PO 2008. At-sea distribution of satellite-tracked grey-faced petrels, Pterodroma macroptera gouldi, captured on the Ruamaahua (Aldermen) Islands, New Zealand. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 142(1): 73-88. (Journal Article, 2008)
  • MacLeod CJ, Till A 2007. Crop use by introduced bird species in winter in relation to crop structure and seed resources. Bird study 54: 80-86. (Journal Article, 2007)
  • MacLeod CJ, Moller H 2006. Intensification and diversification of New Zealand agriculture since 1960: An evaluation of current indicators of land use change. Agriculture ecosystems and environment 115(1-4): 201-. (Journal Article, 2006)
  • MacLeod CJ, Parish DMB, Duncan RP, Moreby S, Hubbard SF 2005. Importance of niche quality for yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella nestling survival, development and body condition in its native and exotic ranges: the role of diet. Ibis 147(2): 270-282. (Journal Article, 2005)
  • MacLeod CJ, Duncan RP, Parish DMB, Wratten SD, Hubbard SF 2005. Can increased niche opportunities and release from enemies explain the success of introduced Yellowhammer populations in New Zealand? Ibis 147: 598-607. (Journal Article, 2005)



  • Associate Editor New Zealand Journal of Ecology, New Zealand Journal of Ecology



  • Animal Ecology
  • Birds: Investigating the ecology of introduced birds in relation to farmland management practices