Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

Penny Fisher

Penny Fisher
Position: Research Associate
Team: Wildlife Ecology & Management
Location: Lincoln
P.O. Box 69040
Lincoln 7640

Research Interests

Research Interests

Role at Landcare Research

Wildlife Toxicologist and Research Leader, Pest Control Technology Team, Landcare Research

Research interests

  • Toxicology and environmental effects of vertebrate pesticides
  • Animal welfare aspects of pest animal management
  • Rodent feeding behaviour and development of baiting strategies
  • Risk assessment and non-target impacts of pesticide use

Professional affiliations

  • 2006 Acting Chair, Landcare Research Animal Ethics Committee
  • Member: Australasian Wildlife Management Society
  • Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Recent publications

Pain, D. J., White, R., Stevenson, J., Bell, M., Williams, K. K., Fisher, P., and Wright, G. (2008). Toxicity and persistenceof sodium fluoroacetate (1080) in the land crab (Gecarcinus lagostoma) on Ascension Island. Wildlife research 35, 86-92.

Booth, L., Fisher, P., and Brown, L. (2007). Water monitoring after aerial application of 1080 baits for pest control – an update. Water and wastes in NZ November 2007, 38-39.

Brown LE, Fisher P, Wright G, Booth L 2007. Measuring degradation of zinc phosphide residues in possum stomach contents. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 79: 459-461

Fisher P, O’Connor C 2007. Oral toxicity of p-aminopropiophenone to ferrets. Wildlife Research 34: 19–24.

Fisher P, O’Connor C, Morriss G, Airey A 2007. House mice avoid 1080. Kararehe Kino 10: 10–11.

Fisher P, Spurr EB, Ogilvie SC, Eason CT 2007. Bait consumption and residual concentrations of diphacinone in the Wellington tree weta (Hemideina crassidens) (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae). New Zealand Journal of Ecology 31: 104–110.

Spurr EB, Morriss GA, Turner J, O’Connor CE, Fisher P 2007. Bait station preferences of ship rats. DOC Research & Development Series 271.

Eason C, Morgan D, Fisher P, Hopkins B, Cowan P 2006. Reflections on improvements in the use of vertebrate pesticides in New Zealand 1996–2006. Proceedings of the 22nd Vertebrate Pest Conference, University of California, Davis, USA. Pp. 406–412.

Fisher P 2006. Persistence of residual diphacinone concentrations in pig tissues following sublethal exposure. DOC Research and Development Series 249.

Bailey C, Fisher P, Eason C 2005. Assessing anticoagulant resistance in rats and coagulation effects in birds using small-volume blood samples. Science for Conservation 249.

Duckworth J, Byrom A, Fisher P, Horn C 2005. Pest control: does the answer lie in new biotechnologies? In: Allen RB, Lee WG eds Biological invasions in New Zealand. Berlin, Springer.

Fisher P 2005. Review of house mouse (Mus musculus) susceptibility to anticoagulant poisons. DOC Science Internal Series 198.

Fisher P, O’Connor C, Murphy E 2005. Acute oral toxicity of a potential vertebrate pesticide, p-aminopropriophenone, in stoats (Mustela erminea). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 32: 163–169.

Lyver PO, Ataria J, Trought K, Fisher P 2005. Sodium fluoroacetate (1080) residues in long-fin eels Anguilla dieffenbachii, following exposure to contaminated water and food. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39: 1234–1252.

Morriss G, Nugent G, Fisher P 2005. Exposure of feral pigs to brodifacoum following baiting for rodent control. DOC Science Internal Series 194.

O'Halloran K, Jones D, Booth L, Fisher P 2005. Ecotoxicity of 1080 to soil organisms. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24: 1211–1218.

Primus T, Wright G, Fisher P 2005. Accidental discharge of brodifacoum baits in a tidal marine environment: a case study. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 74: 913–919.

Tremblay LA, Fisher P, Leusch FDL, van den Heuvel MR, Nicolas J-C, Pilon A, Balaguer P 2005. Evaluation of the potential of sodium fluoroacetate (1080) and fluorocitrate to bind to androgen and oestrogen receptors. Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology 11: 155–162.

Booth LH, Fisher P, Hepplethwaite V, Eason C 2004. Risk of Feracol® baits to non-target invertebrates, native skinks and weka. DOC, Science for Conservation 239.

Fisher P, O'Connor C, Wright G, Eason C 2004. Anticoagulant residues in rats and secondary non-target risk. DOC Science Internal Series 188.

Tremblay LA, Fisher P, Leusch F 2004. Potential of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) and fluorocitrate to bind to estrogen receptor. Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology 10: 77–83.



  • Lincoln
    PhD Ecology
  • Monash
    MAppSc Ecol & Ev Biology



  • Ballesteros C, Sage M, Fisher P, Massei G, Mateo R, De La Fuente J, Rossi S, Gortázar C 2013. Iophenoxic acid as a bait marker for wild mammals: efficacy and safety considerations. Mammal Review 43(2): 156-166. (Journal Article, 2013)
  • Nugent G, Twigg LE, Warburton B, McGlinchy A, Fisher P, Gormley AM, Parkes JP 2012. Why 0.02%? A review of the basis for current practice in aerial 1080 baiting for rabbits in New Zealand. Wildlife Research 39(2): 89-103. <Go to ISI>://WOS:000302323100001 (Journal Article, 2012)
  • Fisher P, Booth LH, Brown LE, Campion M 2012. [Abstract] Anticoagulant rodenticides in New Zealand birds - so what? Proceedings: 6th SETAC world conference Berlin, May 20-24th 2012. Pp. 79. (Conference Proceedings, 2012)
  • Fisher P 2012. How humane are our pest control tools? Welfare Pulse 11: 3. (Journal Article, 2012)
  • Brown S, Warburton B, Fisher P, Bunt CR 2012. Optimising the palatability and longevity of stoat baits. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 39(3): 229-243. (Journal Article, 2012)
  • Fisher P, Griffiths R, Speedy C, Broome K 2011. Environmental monitoring for brodifacoum residues following aerial application of baits for rodent eradication. Occasional papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission 42: 300-304. (Journal Article, 2011)
  • Fisher P, Nugent G, Morgan D, Warburton B, Cowan P, Duckworth J 2011. Possum Management Using Aerial 1080 - Not New, Definitely Improved. New Zealand Journal of Forestry 56(3): 5-8. (Journal Article, 2011)
  • Cowan P, Warburton B, Fisher P 2011. Welfare and ethical issues in invasive species management. Proceedings: 8th European Vertebrate Pest Management Conference, Berlin, 26-30 Sepember 2011. Pp. 44-45. (Conference Proceedings, 2011)
  • Parkes J, Fisher P, Forrester G 2011. Diagnosing the cause of failure to eradicate introduced rodents on islands: brodifacoum versus diphacinone and method of bait delivery. Conservation Evidence 8: 100-106. (Journal Article, 2011)
  • Fisher P, Funnell E, Fairweather A, Brown L, Campion M 2011. Accidental Discharge of Brodifacoum Baits into a Freshwater Lake: A Case Study. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 88: 161-166. (Journal Article, 2011)
  • Fisher P, Brown L, Ogilvie S, Eason C 2010. [Abstract] Anticoagulant Residue Risks - Assessing sublethal exposure to brodifacoum without lethal sampling? Proceedings: 24th Vertebrate Pest Conference, Sacramento, CA., USA, 22-25th February 2010. (Conference Proceedings, 2010)
  • Fisher P, Airey A, Brown S 2009. Effect of pre-feeding and sodium fluoroacetate (1080) concentration on bait acceptance by house mice. Wildlife research 36: 627-638. (Journal Article, 2009)
  • Wanless RM, Fisher P, Cooper J, Parkes J, Ryan PG, Slabber M 2008. Bait acceptance by house mice: an island field trial. Wildlife Research 35(8): 806-811. (Journal Article, 2008)
  • Fisher P, O'Connor CE, Morriss G 2008. Oral toxicity of p-aminopropiophenone to brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44(3): 655-663. (Journal Article, 2008)



  • Member, National Animal Welfare Advisory Committee, MAF