Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

FNZ 61 - Lucanidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) - Māori summary

Holloway, BA 2007. Lucanidae (Insecta: Coleoptera). Fauna of New Zealand 61, 254 pages.
(ISSN 0111-5383 (print); no. 61. ISBN 978-0-478-09395-7 (print)). Published 21 Nov 2007
ZooBank: http://zoobank.org/References/DD20213C-BAEF-49E8-9C34-D65807AA5945
DOI:

Māori summary — He Whakarāpopototanga

Ngā pītara whai rei

He whānau iti, otirā he whānau whārahi, a ngāi Lucanidae, kitea ai puta noa i te ao. He āhua 110 ngā puninga, 1300 pea ia nei ngā momo. I Aotearoa nei, e 39 ngā momo lucanid, e 35 o ēnei kei tēnei whenua anahe e kitea ana, nō roto anō i ngā puninga e 5 nō konei taketake ake. E 4, he rāwaho, ā, e toru o ērā nō Ahitereiria, kotahi nō Taiwan. O ngā momo o Ahitereiria, e rua e mōhiotia ana kei te whakaputa uri i Aotearoa, engari ko tērā atu o ō Ahitereiria, me tō Taiwan, karekau pea.

I te wā i whakaahuatia tuatahitia ai ēnei ngārara, ā taka rawa mai ki te paunga o tērā rautau, i meatia te nuinga o ngā momo o Aotearoa kia taka ki raro i a ngāi Ceratognathus me Lissotes, he puninga nō Ahitereiria, me ngāi Dorcus, he puninga kitea nuitia ai i te tuakoi raki. I pēnei ai nā te ōrite o ngā hanga ki ērā ina kirimoko noa te titiro. Otirā, i ngā tau whakamutunga o ngā 1990, ka tū ētahi rangahau whakatairiterite i ngā hemahema o ngā toa me ngā uha, tae atu ki ngā kahu parirau, ā, kitea ana i reira ehara kau ana nō aua puninga ngā momo o Aotearoa. Nā konā, ka hangaia ētahi puninga hou e 3, ko Geodorcus, ko Holloceratognathus me Paralissotes, ā, ka whakaarahia ake anō a Mitophyllus, he puninga nō Aotearoa. O ngā momo e 35 nō Aotearoa taketake ake, e 34 kei ēnei puninga e whā. Ko tērā atu momo, nō te puninga Dendroblax. Ko te mea kē o tērā puninga, nō tētahi whānau iti tino pakupaku ko Lampriminae te ingoa, kitea ai i te tuakoi tonga anahe. Ko Geodorcus rāua ko Paralissotes, nō ngāi Lucaninae, he whānau iti nui tonu, kei ngā tōpito katoa o te ao. Ko ngāi Holloceratognathus rāua ko Mitophyllus, nō te whānau iti pakupaku Aesalinae, kei ngā tuakoi e rua o te ao. Heoi anō, kāore ngā momo o Aotearoa i te tino ōrite ā-hanga nei ki ērā atu o ngā uri o ō rātou whānau iti.

I ētahi moka o te ao, pērā i te tuakoi raki me ngā takiwā pārūrū, he rahi tonu ētahi o ngā huānga o te whānau. He māmā te tautohu i a rātou, i te mea he mārama te kite atu i ngā waha ko te rei, ko te pihiringa rānei te rite ki te titiro atu. E mōhio pai ana ngā iwi kāinga ki ēnei pepeke i te mea i ngā pō mahana o te raumati kua whakawaia e ngā rama i rō whare, kua tomo atu ki roto. Me te aha, kua noho mai ngā pītara rei nei ki ngā pakiwaitara, ki ngā mahi toi o ētahi o ngā iwi o Ūropi. Waihoki, i ētahi takiwā o Āhia, tērā tonu ka whakamōkaitia. Heoi anō, ko ngā momo taketake ake o Aotearoa nei, me uaua ka kitea, ka mutu, he kirihuna anō hoki. Ko te nuinga, ka noho whāiti ki ō rātou kāinga noho māori, ā, mā te āta rapu rawa e kitea ai. Kāore i muramura ngā tae, kāore hoki i mōhinuhinu – he parauri, he pango te kiri mārō, me ōna anō wekuweku, ōna anō āpure unahi, huruhuru rānei he kōwhai, he parauri pea te tae. Kei te puninga Geodorcus ngā mea rahi rawa, ko ētahi o ngā toa ka tupu kia 44 mm te roa ina uru mai te waha ki te inenga, ki te kore, ka 34 mm te roa. Engari i ērā atu puninga, ka 20 mm noa te roa. Ka poto noa ake ngā uwha i ngā toa o te momo kotahi, i te mea he poto ake ngā waha. Katoa ngā momo o Geodorcus me Paralissotes, tae atu ki ngā uwha o tētahi momo o te puninga Mitophyllus, he rerekore, i te mea he toenga parirau noa iho ō rātou. Engari arā anō ētahi lucanid o Aotearoa nei he parirau tūturu tonu kēō rātou.

Arāētahi momo torutoru o ngāi Mitophyllus kitea ai i ōna wā anō i ngā wāhi mārakerake e tawhiti tonu ana i te ngahere, i te takiwā o ngā kāinga tāngata. Kua horapa anō ki ngā papa tākaro me ngā māra, i te mea ka whanake pai ngā torongū i ngā kōhiwi me ngā manga o ngā rākau māori kua mate, he mea āta whakatipu e te tangata, pērā i ētahi Pittosporum, tae atu ki ētahi rākau rāwaho pērā i te piki me te āporo. Engari ahakoa e kīia ana ko te rākau te pou whakaora mō ēnei hanga, kei ngā momo harore kē e tipu ana i roto i ngā manga te tino oranga mō rātou. Ko tā aua harore, he huri i te kiko o te rākau ki tētahi hanga e taea ana e ngā torongū te kai. Ki te kore e noho mai te momo harore tika ki te rākau, kua kore ngā kātua e piri atu ki taua rākau. Kāore i te paku mōhiotia he aha ngā kai a ngā kātua o ngāi Mitophyllus, engari e whakapaetia ana he ngongo te kai. Ko te pō uriuri, ko te rikoriko te kāinga o ngā kātua o ngāi Geodorcus. Noho ai rātou ki ngā wāhi haukū, mātao, ki raro pea i te poro rākau, i te toka, i te putunga rau, ā, kia pō, kia mōkinokino rānei te rangi, kua puta ki te ao ki te kai i ngā wai ka papī mai i ngā kōhiwi, i ngā tipu hakahaka. Ka noho kēā rātou torongū ki te poho o Papa, he kai oneone, he tāparu oneone te mahi. E whakaarotia ana ko te kaha rerekē o te rahi o ngā kātua o ētahi momo o te puninga Geodorcus, e hono ana ki te rahi me te pai o te kai ka wātea ki ngā torongū. Inā rā, ko ngā toa rahi katoa o te momo kua tino kaha te pirara, o G. helmsi, kei ngā moutere e noho ai ngā torongū ki ngā oneone kua mōmona katoa i te tiko o ngā manu tai.

Ko tētahi mea e whakatau ana i te kaha o te pirara haere o ngā momo o konei taketake ake, ko te āhei ki te rere. Engari ina tirohia ngā mahere whakaatu i ngā wāhi kua kitea tēnā me tēnā momo, me mahara anō te kaipānui arāētahi atu āhuatanga tērā e whakakotiti ana i ngā kitenga, pērā i te poto o te wā e kimihia ana ngā hanga nei, i te iti o te wāhi i tāwhaitia, me te waimarie, te wairuatoa rānei o te kaihāhau. I tēnei wā, ko Mitophyllus irroratus rāua ko M. parrianus anahe e kitea ana i Te Ika a Māui, i Te Waka a Māui, me Rakiura. Ā, kei ngā Kermadec anō a M. irroratus. O ērā atu momo o ngāi Mitophyllus, e 4 kua kitea i Te Ika me Te Waka a Māui, e 4 tērā pea kei Te Ika a Māui anahe, e 3 tērā pea kei Te Waka a Māui anahe, ā, kotahi kei Wharekauri. Kotahi te momo o ngāi Holloceratognathus, he puninga whai parirau tūturu, kua kitea i Te Ika me Te Waka a Māui, kotahi anō kua kitea i aua moutere e rua tae atu ki Rakiura, ā, he momo anō, he momo noho tahi ki te pōpokoriki, e whakaarotia ana kua noho whāiti mai ki tētahi takiwā i te pito tonga o Te Ika a Māui. Ko te momo kotahi o ngāi Dendroblax, kei te nuku o te whenua mai i Te Tai Tokerau ahu atu ki ngā Roto o Ōtākou. Katoa ngā Paralissotes, he rerekore. Ko te momo e ngaruru ana, kua kaha anō te horapa, ko P. reticularis. Kua kitea tērā mai i Te Moana a Toi ki te Pito Tonga o Waitaha. Engari ko ērā atu momo e 6 o taua puninga, kāore i pirara ki tawhiti. Kotahi te momo kei Te Tātua anahe, e 4 kei Te Ika a Māui anahe, 1 kei te raki o Te Waka a Māui anahe. Atu i a Geodorcus helmsi, ko tōna rohe pōtae mai i Te Tai Poutini ki ngā moutere tītī ki te tonga o Rakiura, ko te nuinga o ngāi Geodorcus, kei te noho ki ngā rohe whāiti ake. E 2 e kitea ana i ngā tini moutere o Wharekauri, e 4 kei Te Ika a Māui anahe, e 3 kei Te Waka a Māui anahe, ā, arā anō ētahi kua kitea e whāiti mai ana ki te kōtihi kotahi, ki te moutere kotahi rānei. I te kore o ngā kātua e āhei ki te rere ki wāhi kē, tērā ka orotā te taupori, te momo tonu rānei ki te raru tō rātou kāinga noho i ngā mahi whakarake whenua, i te ahi rānei. Waihoki, i te mea he nui te hanga o ngā kātua, he pōturi anō te haere, ā, he haere pō, he kai māmā noa hei kapo mā te kiore. Ko tētahi atu āhuatanga i noho mōrearea ai ngā pepeke nei, ko te hiahia o ngā kaikohi pepeke ki ngā pepeke onge mō ā rātou ake kohinga, hei hoko rānei. E rua ngā momo o ngāi Geodorcus kua tiakina e te ture, engari ko te painga atu mēnā ka whakawhānuitia atu tēnei pākai kia noho haumaru ai ngā p§tara rei katoa kāore e rere, me ērā atu pepeke rerekore ko Aotearoa anahe tō rātou kāinga. E tika ana anō kia rite te mana o ēnei pepeke ki tō te kiwi, te tuatara, me ērā atu o ngā momo kua rāhuitia i raro i te ture.

He tino iti te mōhio ki te koiora me te oranga o ngā pītara whai rei o Aotearoa. Ina titiro koe ki te pītara rei e ora ana, e moe mai ana rānei ki te kāpata rokiroki, me whai whakaaro anō pea ki tāna noho ki te ao. He mātua anō ōna i tūtaki i hea rā, ā, mokori anō i kitea e tana whaea he wāhi pai mō te whānau hua i ora ai te torongū. Nō te pakaritanga, ka tahuri te torongū ki te kimi wāhi pai e huri ai ia hei ngeti, ā, nōna ka pakeke, tērā ka kitea he kai māna, he hoa anō mōna i whakaputa ai ia i ōna ake uri ki te ao. Nā tana āta whāwhā rawa i te taiao, nā ngā āhuatanga matū anō pea i tutuki pai ai ēnei mahi katoa. He kawenga kei runga i ngā kaitātai whakapapa ki te āta whakaatu i ngā wāhi o te tinana koia pea kei te tuku, kei te kapo rānei i ngā kakara e kīia nei he pheromone, hei tauira, ko ngā āpure huruhuru taihema, ko ngā wāhanga rānei i ngā pūhihi o ngā toa e rite ana ki te patu. Ki te whakatāirihia e ngā kaitātai whakapapa ēnei mea, tērā ka tahuri mai ngā kairangahau o ētahi atu pekanga pūtaiao ki te tūhura. Kāore anō kia matawaia ki te karu whārahi irahiko ngā wekuweku me ngā pūrei huruhuru i ngā waewae o ētahi o ngāi Paralissotes me Geodorcus, engari tērā tonu kei reira ētahi kakara ka āta pania atu ki te papa, ki tētahi atu mata rānei, hei ara kakara. Mēnā i puta he tuhinga mō ngā mataora, mō te whakaputa uri, mō ngā wāhi e whakanōhia ai ngā hua, te maha o ngā hua, te wā e whānau hua ana, tae atu ki te roa e ora ana ngā momo rerekore, he koha nui tēnā e kaha ake ai tō tātou mārama ki te āhua o tēnei whānau.

Ko te tūmanako, ka āwhina ngā kōrero whakamārama i te hanga o ngā pepeke nei me ngā ara tautohu i te tangata, ahakoa te hōhonu o tana mōhio ki ngā aitanga pepeke. Me te tūmanako anō ka pārekareka ngā whakaahua ki te hunga e kore rawa pea e kite i tētahi pītara rei, ka rekareka anō rātou i te huhuatanga me te ahurei o ngā pītara rei o Aotearoa.

Translated by: Hēni Jacob, Tāmaki-makau-rau / Auckland