Landcare Research - Manaaki Whenua

Landcare-Research -Manaaki Whenua

FNZ 50 - Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) catalogue - Māori summary

Larivière, M-C; Larochelle, A 2004. Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue. Fauna of New Zealand 50, 330 pages.
(ISSN 0111-5383 (print); no. 50. ISBN 0-478-09358-6 (print)). Published 14 May 2004
ZooBank: http://zoobank.org/References/A7CCCF4B-BAEA-4515-AE1A-740523FD1289

He Whakarāpopototanga

E whakaaetia whānuitia ana he pūtoi iti a Heteroptera (ngā pepeke wahangote tūturu) nō ngāi Hemiptera. Kei te āhua 37 000 pea ngā momo kua whakaahuatia ā-kupu, huri i te ao, me tētahi atu 25 000 kāore anō i whakaahuatia. Kua wehewehea ngā momo ki ētahi whānau āhua 75 nei. Ko te maha o ngā momo i ngā kāhui e kaha ake ana te mōhiotia,   pērā i ō Amerika ki te Raki, i ō ūropi, i ō Ahitereiria, ko tōna 2 000-2 500 pea. He tokoiti tonu te kāhui Heteroptera ki Aotearoa ina whakatairitea ki ō ērā whenua rahi, inā rā, e 29 noa ngā whānau, 136 ngā puninga, e 305 ngā momo, engari me kōrero tōna ahurei ka tika. Hei tauira, ko tētahi 82% o ngā momo o konei e mōhiotia ana, kāore e kitea i whenua kē. Me kī pēnei ake, he āhuru mōwai tonu a Aotearoa mō ngā pepeke wahangote. Ina oti katoa ngā mea o Aotearoa te whakaahua ā-kupu, tērā te eke ki te 400-500 momo. Ko ōna kāwai torokaha, ki ngā momo i te tonga-mā-rāwhiti o Ahitereiria.

He uaua te whakautu i te pātai he aha koia tēnei mea te pepeke wahangote tūturu, i te mea karekau pea he āhuatanga motuhake kotahi e kitea ana i ngā momo katoa. Heoi anō, e toru ngā āhuatanga tinana matua e mōhiotia ai te nuinga o ngā pepeke wahangote: he whai wāhanga ngote te waha, arā, he ngutu wāhanga-maha ka rere mai i mua o te ūpoko ki raro rā anō; ko ngā parirau o mua ka āhua īnakinaki, me te tatao anō ki te puku; he mātotoru noa ake te pūtake o te parirau o mua, tēnā i te pito (nō reira mai hoki te ingoa Heteroptera, i ahu mai i ngā kupu Kariki heteros (arā, he rerekē) me te pteron (parirau), e tohu ana i te rerekē o te mātotoru i tēnā wāhi, i tēnā wāhi o te parirau o mua).

Ahakoa māmā pea te whakatau āe, he pepeke wahangote tērā, kāore rānei, ka uaua ake te āta wehewehe i ngā momo, tētahi i tētahi. He kaha tonu te rite o te hanga i roto i ia puninga, engari ina tiro whānui ki ngā puninga katoa, he matahuhua tonu te hanga, ā, he tino rerekē ngā āhuatanga taupuhi kaiao e pai ana ki tēnā, ki tēnā.

O ngā pepeke kāhuarau pahara, ko ngāi Heteroptera te huinga pepeke nui katoa, matahuhua katoa. Mai i te whānautanga ki te matenga, kotahi te tūātipu hua, he maha ngā tūātipu punua (e 5 ō te nuinga), ngā tūātipu rānei ka rite haere ki tō te pakeke te āhua, ā, ko te kāhua whakamutunga, ko te pakeke tonu.

He kāhui kaha te urutau ngā pepeke wahangote. Kua tomo atu rātou i te nuinga o ngā ripoinga whenua, me te maha atu o ngā ripoinga wai, kua tino matahuhua anō ā rātou kawenga e ora ai rātou i te tini o ngā whenua rahi me ngā moutere, e tohu ana kua aua atu pea te wā e kukune haere ana ngā pepeke wahangote nei ki te mata o te whenua.

Me te aha, kei te kaha te kitea o ngāi Heteroptera i ngā kohinga me ngā whare pupuri pepeke o Aotearoa. Engari ahakoa tēnei, kāore anō i whakaputaina tētahi rārangi hou ake i tā Wise (1977) "... synonymic checklist of the Hexapoda of the New Zealand sub-region... ", i whakahua rā i ngā puninga 100 me ngā momo 170. E hia kē ngā huringa ingoa, tae atu ki ngā puninga me ngā momo hou (neke atu i te 160) kua whakaputaina mai i tērā wā. Ahakoa he whai take tonu te rārangi a Wise, kāore e whakaata ana i ngā mātauranga o nāianei mō ngā pepeke wahangote. Koinei i tuhia ai tēnei rārangi hou, e whai ana ki te whakautu i ngā pātai e uia nuitia ana ahakoa te huinga pepeke, arā: he aha, kei hea, āhea, pēhea? He aha ngā Heteroptera e kitea ana i Aotearoa? He pēhea tō rātou tūranga (hei tauira, he momo māori, he rāwaho, he riha, he whaihua ki te tangata i te mea he hoariri nō tētahi hanga kino)? He aha ngā rauemi e wātea ana hei tautuhi, hei rangahau i ngā mea nei? Kei hea ake ngā momo me ngā puninga (hei tauira, te tohanga ki Aotearoa, ki tāwāhi rānei, ō rātou ripoinga, he pēhea rānei te āhua o tā rātou whakamarara i a rātou anō)? āhea korikori ai (hei tauira, ā rātou korikori ā-kaupeka, te ai, te whānau hua, te wāhi noho i te takurua)? Pēhea ai tā rātou noho (hei tauira, ā rātou tino kai, ngā tipu ka nohoia e rātou, me ō rātou hoariri)?

Ko te nuinga o ngā whānau Heteroptera e noho ana ki Aotearoa, he noho whenua. He iti ake i te 7% kei te noho ki te mata, ki te taha rānei o te wai, ki roto tonu rānei i te wai. Ko ngā momo noho whenua, ka noho ki te papa tonu, ki ngā tipu weku-kore rānei e piri tonu ana ki a Papa, ki ngā rākau rānei. Ko ngā ripoinga māori noho whenua e rua kei reira te tino maha o ngā momo, ko ngā ngahere me ngā whenua mauwha (i ngā whenua tāpotupotu me ngā maunga). Me kōrero anō ngā momo ahurei e noho ana ki ngā raorao pātītī me ngā koraha āhua teitei. Noho ai te nuinga o ngā momo māori ki ngā ripoinga māori, engari ko ētahi e ora ana i ngā taiao kua rawekehia. Ka tomo atu hoki ngā momo rāwaho i ngā ripoinga māori, engari ka noho ki ngā taitapa noa.

He ruarua rawa atu ngā momo māori ko ngā takutai tāpotupotu anake tō rātou kāinga. Engari ko ngā tāhuahua, ngā wahapū me ngā wāhi kōreporepo o te takutai ngā tino kāinga o ngā rāwaho. Arā anō hoki ētahi momo ka piri tata ki ngā kāinga tangata.

He tino whāiti te mōhio ki te koiora o ngā pepeke wahangote māori. E mōhiotia ana te momo tipu e āta nohoia ana e tētahi 25% kau o ngā momo, ā, ko te nuinga o ēnei, nō ngā whānau wahangote kai kākano, kai tipu rānei. I te kohinga haeretanga o ngā raraunga mō tēnei rārangi mai i ngā kohinga o Aotearoa, kei te mārama haere ngā oreore ā-kaupeka a ētahi momo, tae atu ki ngā pakeke tonu. E whakapaetia ana he moepō ngā pakeke o te nuinga o ngā whānau, ā, ahakoa kei te oreore pea mō te nuinga o te tau, ko ngā wā e kaha ai te korikori, mai i Whiringa-ā-rangi ki Poutū-te-rangi, arā, mai i te hiku o te kōanga (Mahuru-Whiringa-ā-rangi), te raumati (Hakihea-Hui-tanguru), ki te tīmatanga o te ngahuru (Poutū-te-rangi-Haratua). Heoi, kāore e tino mōhiotia ana ngā oreore ā-kaupeka o ngā kōhungahunga, te wā rānei e whakaputa uri ai te nuinga o ngā momo. He tata ki te kore ngā kōrero kua tuhia mō te koiora taupori me ngā tikanga tītari.

He kai tipu te nuinga o ngā Heteroptera e noho ana ki Aotearoa. Ko tā te nuinga o ngā whānau, he ngote i te pia mai i ngā iaia tonu o te tipu, ka kainga rānei ko ngā kākano, ngā hua e pakari haere ana, ngā pua, tae atu pea ki te hae. Ko te whakapae, kai ai te nuinga o ngā momo o te whānau pepeke wahangote papatahi i te kiko o ngā harore whakapirau rākau. I te tino nuinga o ngā whānau, arā ētahi momo kai ai i ētahi atu pepeke, angawaho rānei. Arā anō ētahi whānau ko te pepeke tā rātou tino kai. Ko te wahangote rāwaho noho moenga anake te mea ka kai i ngā toto o ngā hanga whai tuarā, tae atu ki te tangata; heoi, e whakaarotia ana kāore e tukuna he mate i tēnei mahi āna.

He iti te mōhio ki ngā hoariri tūturu o ngā Heteroptera o Aotearoa. Ki tā ngā kitenga o ētahi, he pirinoa Hymenoptera kai hua, he manu (ngā pipit, ngā rook me ngā tāringi), he pūngāwerewere, he pepeke wahangote damsel, he pītara noho papa, me te pūwereriki ētahi o ōna hoariri i Aotearoa, engari he ruarua ngā tuhinga kua puta mō tēnei āhua. I runga i ngā kitenga o ngā kaituhi, ko ngā pūngāwerewere pea ngā tino hoariri, ā, e tino hāngai ana tēnei ki ngā ripoinga mārakerake pērā i ngā whenua pātītī me ngā maunga.

He iti ake pea ngā pānga ohaoha (hei tauira, te kaikainga o ngā māra me te tuku mate) o ngāi Heteroptera i ērā atu pūtoi pepeke mātāmua, engari arā tonu ētahi momo māori me ētahi rāwaho i Aotearoa kua tuhia he kōrero mō ā rātou mahi pēnei (hei tauira, i ngā māra kākano, huawhenua, me te tupeka). I tua atu i tēnei, arā ngā momo e kīia ana he hoariri i ētahi atu whenua o te ao, tae atu ki ngā moutere pātata ki Aotearoa me Te Pāpaka a Māui, tērā ka patu i te koiora o ngā whenua pēnei i Aotearoa ko te ahumahi mātāmua te tāhuhu o tōna ōhanga. Hei tauira, mai rā anō, kua noho ko te pepeke wahangote chinch me ētahi atu o te whānau kai kākano hei riha kai tipu kino rawa atu i ngā whenua maha o te ao. Nō reira, me whakahou haere te rārangi o ngā pepeke wahangote i Aotearoa me ngā whenua pātata ka tika, mā te whakahaere rangahautanga tū-ā-nuku ka tahi, mā te tirotiro anō i ngā whakarōpūtanga ka rua.

Heoi, he āwhina anō kei ngā Heteroptera mō te tangata me te taiao. Arā hoki ngā momo ka kai i ētahi atu rauropi kino, ā, ka taea pea ēnei te kuhu atu ki ngā kaupapa hei here i aua rauropi. Kāore anō i rangahaua te nuinga o ngā momo māori o Aotearoa he kai pepeke, he kaikiota rānei, mō te pai o tā rātou here o ngā rauropi kino, engari kua whakamahia ētahi i tāwāhi hei here i ngā thrip, ngā pūwereriki, ngā hua pūrēhua, ngā torongū, ngā pekerau, ngā waeroa me ngā peketipu. Waihoki, he painga anō pea ō ētahi huinga pepeke wahangote ki te tangata, i roto rānei i ngā mahi tiaki taiao. Hei tauira, arā ngā Heteroptera noho wai koia pea te tino kai a ētahi ika, ka pai anō hei waitohu i te pai o te wai.

He rerekore tētahi 25% o ngāi Heteroptera nui tonu, engari i waenga i ngā wahangote papatahi me tētahi whānau kai kākano, ka piki te rerekore ki te 65-70%. Nā konā, he maha tonu ngā momo o Aotearoa kāore e tino tawhiti te tītaringa: he huhua ngā momo ka noho whāiti ki Aotearoa anake, ā, ki ētahi takiwā whāiti, pērā i Piopiotahi, i Te Tai Tokerau, i Whakatū ki te Uru-mā-raki.

Kāore e tino mōhiotia ana pēhea te huhua, te tītaringa rānei o ngā momo e whakapaetia ana kua mōrearea te noho, e mōhiotia ai me pēhea rawa te kaha o te tiaki. E 65 ngā momo kua kitea e whakapaetia ana tērā pea me āta rauhī, engari mā ngā rangahautanga rawa e ine ana i te nui e taea ai te whakaputa whakatau whai tikanga mō ngā momo nei; kāore e pai te mātakitaki noa, te kohikohi noa hei whakatau i te hauora me te tītaringa o tētahi taupori.

Kāore e tino wātea ana ngā kōrero kua haupū haere mō ngā pepeke wahangote o Aotearoa i te 150 tau ka taha. He maramara kōrero kei kō, he maramara anō kei kō. Tērā rānei kei te herea ki tētahi kohinga koiora kotahi. Ko te tūmanako, mā tēnei rārangi ka āhei ngā tohunga pepeke me ngā ihu hūpē anō ki ngā kōrero katoa e wātea ana mō te whakarōpūtanga, te tohanga, te koiora me te tītaringa o ngā Heteroptera o Aotearoa. Kua whakaritea kia tino hāngai te takoto o ngā kōrero ki te hunga tātai whakapapa me ētahi atu tohunga koiora.   Ko te tikanga, ka māmā te kimi pārongo, te whakatairite i ngā puninga me ngā momo, me te tuitui haere i ngā raraunga. Ki tā ngā kaituhi, me pēnei rawa te mātotoru o te putunga raraunga e taea ai te whakamātau ētahi whakapae mō ngā hononga taiao me ētahi atu hononga i waenga i a ngāi Heteroptera.

Translated by: Hēni Jacob, Levin